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Applications of Nanotechnology in Bio-Engineering
Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing area that will affect people in their lives. Research is now under way investigating areas in which nanotechnology can improve the quality of life through the engineering of bone, tissue, and organs.
Nanotechnology is being used in teeth and bone substitutions duplicating the manner nature itself lays down minerals. This process is called biomimicry. Biomimicry is already the basis of new tough and light materials for bullet proof vests and other defense applications.
The use of nano-patterned polymers may reduce the long recovery times, scarring and infection associated with bone grafts. Scientists are trying to use this technique to breed adult stem cells that will turn into bone. As soon as the process of growing tissue on patterned scaffolding is perfected nano-structured devices can be fixed to further improve bone growth rates and reduce healing time. The devices have electrodes producing an electric current whicg has been shown to stimulate bone growth.
This study substantiates the value of quantitative methods in enhancing the productivity of a Class 1 railroad 2 like Conrail. Although the MILP suggested here is general in nature, it appears more suitable for operations in smaller geographic areas due to the relative ease in data collection and analysis. A typical example would be an operating territory with a hub yard and several satellite yards. Also, the model may be applicable to non-Class 1 railways seeking improvement in locomotive utilization.
7.1. Summary of work
In this paper, we start with de eloping a formula for estimating the cost of moving light engines at Conrail.
A mixed integer linear program (MILP)is then introduced to assist the company in improving its locomotive utilization, and an illustrative application is presented to establish the validity of the mathematical model. Computer solutions show that the new approach leads to considerable annual savings based on a small set of real data and is considered superior to the existing method.
Lastly, a one-sided sensitivity analysis is used to determine if acquisition of additional locomotives to reduce deadheading costs can be .financially justified.