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匿名使用者 發問時間: 藝術與人文歷史 · 2 0 年前


Greek Thought, Literature And Art

1.the athens of pericles.


3.plato and the academy.

4.aristotle and the lyceum.

5.philosophy becomes unworldly.

6.the Quality and limitations of greek thought.

7.the first great imaginative lilerature.

8.greek art.

greek history for the next forty years after plataea and mycale is a story of comparative peace and tranquillity.

there were wars, but they were not intense wars. for a little while in athens, for a section of the prosperous, there was leisure and opportunity.

and by a combination of accidents and through the character of a small group of people, this leisure and opportunity produced the most memorable results.

the achievement of a method of writing that could render the sounds and subtleties of spoken language had now made literature possible, and much beautiful literature was produced, the plastic arts flourished, and the foundations of modern science already laid by the earlier philosophers of the Ionian greek cities were consolidated, then, after an interlude of fifty odd years, the long-smouldering hostility between athens and sparta broke out into a fierce and exhausting war, which sapped at last the vitality of this creative movement.

this war is known in history as the peloponnesian war : it went on for nearly thirty years, and wasted all the power of greece. at first athens was in the ascendant, then sparta. then arose thebes , a city not fifty miles from athens , to overshadow sparta. once more athens flared into importance as the head of a confederation. it is a story of narrow rivalries and inexplicable hatreds, that would have vanished long ago out of the memories of men were it not that it is recorded and reflected in a great literature.

through all this time persia appears and reappears as the ally first of this league and then of that . about the middle of b.c., greece becomes aware of a new influence of philip, king of macedonia. macedonia in the background of this incurably divided greece, as the medes and persians arose behind the chaldean empire, a time comes when the greek mind turns round, so to spenk, from its disputes, and stares in one united dismay at the macedonian.

planless and murderous squabbles are still planless and murderous squabbles even though Thucydides tells the story, even though the great beginnings of a new civilization are wrecked by their disorders: and in this general outline we can give no space at all to the partieulars of these internecine feuds, to the fights and flights that sent first this greek city and then that up to the sky in flames. upon a one-foot globe greece becomes a speck almost too small to recognize: and in a short history of mankind, all this century and more of dissension between the days of salamis and plataea and the rise of king philip, shrinks to a little, almost inaudible clash of disputation, to a mere note upon the swift passing of opportunity for nations as for men.

but what does not shrink into significance, because it has entered into the intellectual process of all subsequent nations, because it is inseparably a part of our mental foundation, is the literature that greece produced during such patches and gleams of tranquillity and security as these times afforded her.

says professor gilbert murray:

"their outer political histour, indeed, like that of all other nations, is filled with war and diplomacy, with cruelty and deceit. it is the inner history, the history of thought and feeling and character, that is so grand. they had some difficulties to contend with, which are now almost out of our path. they had practically no experience, but were doing everything for the first time:they were utterly weak in material resources, and their emotions, their "desires and fears and rages,"were probably wilder and fiercer than ours. yet they produced the athens of pericles and of plato."

this remarkable culmination of the long-gathering creative power of the greek mind, which for three-and-twenty centuries has been to men of intelligence a guiding and inspiring beacon out of the past, flared up after the battles of marathon and salamis had made athens free and fearless and, without any great excesses of power, predominant in her world. it was the work of a quite small group of men. a number of her citizens lived for the better part of a generation under conditions which, in all ages, have disposed men to produce good and beautiful work: they were secure, they were free, and they had pride:and they were without that temptation of apparent and unchallenged power which disposes all of us to inflict wrongs upon our fellow-men. when political life narrowed down again to the waste and crimes of a fratricidal war with sparta, there was so broad and well-fed a flame of intellectual activity burning that it lasted through all the windy distresses of this war and beyond the brief lifetime of alexander the great, for a period altogether of more than a hundred years after the wars began.

flushed with victory and the sense of freedom fairly won, the people of athens did for a time rise towards nobility. under the guidance of a great demagogue, pericles, the chief official of the athenian general assembly, and a politician-statesman rather of the calibre of gladstone or lincoln in modern history, they were set to the task of rebuilding their city and expanding their commerce. for a time they were capable of following a generous leader generously, and fate gave them a generous leader. in pericles there was mingled in the strangest fashion political ability with a real living passion for deep and high and beautiful things. he kept in power for over thirty years. he was a man of extraordinary vigour and liberality of mind. he stamped these qualities upon his time. as winckler has remarked, the atheman democracy had for a time "the face of pericles." he was sustained by what was probably a very great and noble friendship. there was a woman of unusual education, aspasia, from miletus, whom he could not marry because of the law that restricted the citizenship of athens to the homeborn, but who was in effect his wife. she played a large part in gathering about him men of unusual gifts. all the great writers of the time knew her, and several have praised her wisdom. plutarch, it is true, accuses her of instigating troublesome and dangerous but finally successful war against samos, but as himself shows later, this was necessitated by the naval hostility of the samians, which threatened the overseas trade of athens, upon which all the prosperity of the republic depended.

men's ambitions are apt to reflect the standards of their intimates. pericles was content, at any rate, to serve as a leader in athens rather than to dominate as a tyrant. alliances were formed under his guidance, new colonies and trading stations were established from italy to the black sea: and the treasures of the league at delos were brought to athens. convinced of his security from persia, pericles spent the war hoard of the allies upon the beautification of his city. this was an unrighteous thing to do by our modern standards, but it was not a base or greedy thing to do. athens had accomplished the work of the delian league and is not the labourer worthy of his hire? this sequestration made a time of exceptional opportunity for architects and artists. the parthenon of athens, whose ruins are still a thing of beauty, was but the crown set upon the clustering glories of the athens pericles rebuilt. such sculptures as those of phidias, myron, and polyclitus that still survive witness to the artistic quality of the time.

the reader must bear in mind that illuminating remark of winckler’s, which says that this renaxcent athens bore for a time the face of pericles. it was the peculiar genius of this man and of his atmosphere that let loose the genius of men about him,and attracted men of great intellectual vigour to athens. athens wore his face for a time as one wears a mask, and then became restless and desired to put him aside. there was very little that was great and generous about the common athenian. we have told of the spirit of one sample voter for the ostracism of aristides, and lloyd( in his age of pericles ) declares that the athenians would not suffer the name of miltiades to be mentioned in connection with the battle of marathon.the sturdy self-respect of the common voters revolted presently against the beautiful buildings rising about them; against the favours shown to such sculptors as Phidias over popular worthies in the same line of business; against the donations made to a mere foreigner like Herodotus of Halicarnassus; against the insulting preferense of pericles for the company and conversation of a milesian woman. the public life of pericles was conspicuously orderly, and that presently set the man in the street thinking that his private life must be very corrupt. one gathers that pericles was ” superior ” in his demeanour; he betrayed at times a contempt for the citizens he servsd.

“pericles acquired not only an elevation of sentiment, and a loftiness and purity of style far removed from the low expression of the vulgar, but likewise a gravity of countenance which relaxed not into laughter, a firm and even tone of voice, an easy deportment, and a decency of dress which no vehemence of speaking ever put into disorder. these things, and others of a like nature, excited admiration in all that saw him. such was his conduct, when a vile and abandoned fellow loaded him a whole day with reproaches and abuse; he bore it with patience and silence, and continued in public for the despatch of some




可對照我的上一個問題(中譯<-雖然翻的很怪= =")


2 個解答

  • 匿名使用者
    2 0 年前









    人的野心可以反映時人的標準。培里克利斯對於成為雅典的領裡感到滿足,他並沒有進一步成為主導雅典的僭主。在他的指導下各邦結成同盟關係,並在意大利和黑海之間,建立了許多植民地和貿易據點,而Delos同盟的財富則都被送到雅典。在確定並無遭波斯侵襲之虞以後,培里克利斯將同盟各邦繳納的戰費,花在美化雅典城上,這使雅典的建築師和藝術家獲得大展身手的機會。帕德嫩神廟,Phidias, Myron和Polyclitus的雕塑,都是這一時期藝術品質的見證。

    讀者必須記得Winckler很有啟發性的一段話,即再生時期的雅典人,在這段時間裡,戴著培里克里斯臉型的面具。正是這個人的特殊天份,以及他所營造的氣氛,使他身邊的天才可以自由發展,並將各方才俊吸引到雅典來。 但雅典人在戴了一段時間以後,就開始很想把這個面具放在一邊。因為一般的的雅典人並不都是這樣偉大和寬宏的。一般選民強烈的自尊心,開始反對週遭的美麗建築,反對尊禮雕刻家及藝術創作者,反對資助外邦人,甚至攻擊培里克利斯和外邦女子同居的行為。培里克利斯的社交生活是非常嚴謹的,但在街頭巷議中,人們卻開始認為他的私生活一定是很腐敗的。


  • 小儒
    Lv 5
    2 0 年前



    1.the 雅典pericles 。

    2.socrates 。

    3.plato 和學院。

    4.aristotle 和學苑。

    5.philosophy 變得精神。

    6.the 希臘想法的質量和局限。

    7.the 首先偉大的有想像力的lilerature 。

    8.greek 藝術。

    希臘歷史為下四十年在plataea 和mycale 是比較和平和寧靜故事之後。有戰爭, 但他們少許不是強烈的戰爭在雅典, 為部分興旺, 有休閒和機會。並且由事故的組合和通過一群小人的字符, 這個休閒和機會導致了最難忘的結果。

    能回報聲音並且講話的語言微妙現在使文學成為可能文字方法的成就, 並且美好的文學導致了, 造型藝術茂盛了, 並且現代科學的基礎由Ionian 希臘城市的更加早期的哲學家已經打被鞏固了, 那麼, 在插曲五十奇怪的年以後, 長悶燃的敵意在雅典之間和sparta 發生了入一場劇烈和用盡的戰爭, sapped 最後這創造性的運動的生命力。 這場戰爭為人所知在歷史上作為peloponnesian 戰爭: 它繼續幾乎三十年, 和浪費了所有希臘的力量。在第一雅典是在上升, sparta. 然後然後出現了thebes, 城市沒有五十英哩從雅典, 給sparta. 雅典投上陰影更加飄動了入重要性作為聯邦的頭。這是狹窄的競爭故事並且莫名的仇恨, 那從前會消失在人外面記憶是它不是它被記錄和被反射在偉大的文學。 通過所有這時候波斯首先出現和再現作為盟友這個同盟和然後那。關於中部BC, 希臘發現菲利普, 馬其頓馬其頓的國王的新影響在這無可救藥地分開的希臘背景中, 如同medes 和波斯人出現了在迦勒底帝國之後, 時期來當希臘頭腦轉動得在周圍, 因此到spenk, 自它的爭執, 和凝望在一團結的沮喪在馬其頓人。 planless 和凶惡的拌嘴是planless 和凶惡的拌嘴即使Thucydides 講故事, 即使新文明的巨大起點由他們的混亂擊毀: 並且在這個大綱我們不能給空間根本這些國內仇隙partieulars, 首先送這個希臘城市並且然後由天空決定在火焰裡在一英尺地球希臘成為一個斑點幾乎太小以至於不能認出的戰鬥和飛行: 並且在人類的短的歷史上, 所有本世紀和更多糾紛在天蒜味鹹臘腸和plataea 和菲利普國王之間的上升, 收縮對一點, 幾乎不能聽見的碰撞糾紛, 對僅僅筆記在快速通過機會為國家至於為人。 但什麼不收縮入意義, 因為它加入所有隨後國家的智力過程, 因為這不能分離地是我們的精神基礎的部份, 是希臘導致在寧靜和安全期間這樣補釘和微光作為這些時代付得起她的文學。 murray 說教授gilbert: "their 外面政治histour, 的確, 像那所有其它國家, 用戰爭和外交被填裝, 以慘暴和欺騙。這是內在歷史、想法的歷史和感覺和字符, 是很盛大他們有一些困難對付, 比我們的幾乎現在是在我們的道路外面他們沒有實際經驗, 但做□一切為第一time:they 是完全地微弱的在資源、和他們的情感、他們的"desires 和恐懼和憤怒, "were 大概狂放和劇烈他們生產pericles 雅典和plato." 希臘頭腦的長會集的創造性的力量的這個卓越的頂點, 為三和二十世紀是對智力人一個引導的和富_示性的烽火臺在過去外面, 飄動了在馬拉松和蒜味鹹臘腸爭鬥使雅典自由和無所畏懼和, 沒有力量任何巨大剩餘, 主要在她的世界裡之後。這是的相當小小組的工作一定數量她的公民居住為世代的大部分在情況下, 在所有年齡, 配置人引起好和美好的工作人: 他們是安全, 他們是自由的, 並且他們有pride:and 他們是沒有那種誘惑明顯並且配置我們大家給予錯誤在我們的傢伙人的未受挑戰的力量當再縮小了對一場殺兄弟的戰爭的廢物和罪行與sparta 的, 那裡是很寬廣的並且well-fed 智力活動火焰燒它政治生活持續了通過所有有風一共困厄這場戰爭和在亞歷山大帝之外簡要的終身, 為了期間的更多比在戰爭一百年開始了之後。 注滿以勝利和自由感覺相當贏取了, 雅典的人寧可做了為時間上升往貴族在一個了不起的煽動者, pericles, 首要正式亞典人大會, 和政客政治家gladstone 或林肯口徑的指導下在現代史上, 他們被設置了對重建他們的城市和擴展他們的商務任務一度他們是能慷慨地跟隨一位慷慨的領導, 並且命運給了他們一位慷慨的領導。在pericles 那裡被混合了在最奇怪的時尚政治能力以真正的生存激情為深刻和高和美好的事。他保留在力量三十年。他是頭腦的非凡強健和心胸的一個人。他蓋印了這些質量在他的時間。因為winckler 陳述了, atheman 民主有為pericles." 的時間"the 面孔; 他由什麼承受了大概是一非常偉大的並且高尚的友誼那裡是異常的教育, aspasia 的婦女, 從miletus, 與結婚他不能由於法律對homeborn 制約雅典公民身份, 但誰實際上是她起大作用在會集關於他異常的禮物人時間所有了不起的作家認識她的他的妻子, 並且數稱讚了她的智慧plutarch, 它是真實的, 指責她鼓動麻煩和危險但最後與samos 的成功的戰爭, 但是當他自己以後顯示, 這由samians 的海軍敵意需要了, 威脅雅典國外貿易, 共和國所有繁榮取決於。 men's 志向易於反射標準他們intimates. pericles 是滿意, 無論如何, 擔當一位領導在雅典而不是控制因為暴君聯盟被形成了在他的教導下, 新殖民地並且貿易的駐地建立了從義大利向黑海: 並且同盟的珍寶在delos 被帶來了到雅典被說服他的安全從波斯, pericles 花費了盟友的戰爭囤積居奇在他的城市美化這是的一件unrighteous 事做由我們的現代標準, 但它不是基本的或貪婪的事不是做雅典完成了delian 同盟的工作和民工值得他的聘用嗎? 這隔離做了時期例外機會為建築師並且雅典parthenon, 廢墟是仍然秀麗事, 是僅冠集合在雅典pericles 的使成群的榮耀的藝術家像仍然生存證人對時間的藝術性的質量的那些重建了如此雕塑phidias 、myron, 和polyclitus 。 讀者必須記住闡明winckler 的評論, 認為這renaxcent 雅典一度使pericles 不耐煩的面孔。這是這個人奇怪天才讓寬鬆人天才關於他的和他的大氣, 並且偉大的智力強健的被吸引的人向雅典雅典佩帶了他的面孔一度如同你佩帶面具, 並且然後變得不安定並且渴望投入他那裡在旁邊是很少是偉大和慷慨的關於共同的雅典人。我們告訴一個樣品選民的精神為aristides 流放, 並且lloyd(在他的pericles 的年齡) 宣稱雅典人不會遭受miltiades 的名字被提及於共同的選民健壯的自尊心目前反抗反對美麗的大廈上升關於他們marathon.the 相聯的爭鬥; 反對厚待被顯示對如此雕刻家像Phidias 普遍的worthies 在同樣營業範圍; 反對捐贈被做對一個僅僅外國人喜歡Halicarnassus Herodotus; 反對一名milesian 婦女的pericles 為公司和交談欺辱的preferense pericles 公共生活顯眼地是勤務兵, 和那目前被設置在街上的男人認為, 他的私人生活必須是非常腐敗一個聚集pericles 是"優勝者" 在他的demeanour; 他時常顯露蔑視為公民他servsd 。 "pericles 獲取了不僅情緒的海拔, 和樣式巍峨和純淨從低表示粗俗, 但同樣放鬆不是入笑聲, 牢固讚同並且甚而口氣的重力, 容易的儀態, 和熱烈講話曾經沒有投入入混亂這些事禮服的正派, 並且其他人a 被取消像自然, 激動的傾慕在所有那把鋸裡他這樣是他的品行, 當一個卑鄙和被□棄的傢伙用責備和惡習裝載了他一整天; 他使它不耐煩以耐心和沉默, 和繼續公開為一些的派遣