匿名使用者
匿名使用者 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 2 0 年前

英文翻譯~~蠻多的唷!~10點~謝謝!

Whether we like it or not, the world we live in has changed a great deal in the last hundred years, and it is likely to change even more in the next hundred. Some people would like to stop these changes and go back to what they see as a purer and simpler age. But as history shows, the past was not that wonderful. It was not so bad for a privileged minority, though even they had to do without modern medicine, and childbirth was highly risky for women. But for the vast majority of the population, life was nasty and short.

Anyway, even if one wanted to, one couldn’t put the clock back to an earlier age, Knowledge and techniques can’t just be forgotten. Nor can one prevent further advances in the future. Even if all government money for research were cut off, the force of competition would still bring about advance in technology. Moreover, one cannot stop inquiring minds from thinking about basic science, whether or not they were paid for it.

If we accept that we cannot prevent science and technology from changing our world, we can at last try to ensure that the changes they make are in the right directions. In a democratic society, this means that the public needs to have a basic understanding of science, so that it can make informed decision and not leave them un the hands of experts. At the moment, the public has a rather ambivalent attitude toward sciences. It has come to expect the steady increase in the standard of living that new developments in science and technology have brought to continue, but it also distrusts science because it doesn’t understand it. This distrust is evident in the cartoon figure of the mad scientist working in laboratory to produce a Frankenstein. But the public also has a great interest in science, as is shown by the large audiences for science fiction.

What can be done to harness this interest and give the public the scientific background it needs to make informed decisions on subjects like acid rain, the greenhouse effect, unclear weapons, and genetic engineering? Clearly, the basic must lie in what is taught in school. But in schools is often presented in a dry and uninteresting manner. Children must learn it by rote to pass examination, and they don’t see its relevance to the world around them. Moreover, science is often taught in terms of equations are a concise and accurate way of describing mathematical ideas, they frighten most people.

Scientists and engineers tend to express their ideas in the form of equations because they need to know the precise value of quantities. But for the rest of us, a qualitative grasp of scientific concepts is sufficient. And this can be conveyed by words and diagrams, without the use of equations.

The science people learn in school can provide the basic framework. But the rate of scientific progress is now so rapid that there are always new development that have occurred since one was at school; or university. I never learned about molecular biology or transistors at school;, but genetic engineering and computers are two of the developments most likely to change the way we live in the future. Popular books and magazine articles about science can help to put across new developments, but even the most successful popular book is read by only a small proportion of the population. There are some very good science programs on TV, but others present scientific wonders simply as magic, without explaining them or showing how they fit into the framework of scientific ideas. Producers of television science programs should realize that they have a responsibility to educate the public, not just entertain it.

What are the science-related issues that the public will have to make decisions on in the near future? By far the most urgent is that of unclear weapons. Other global problems, such as food supply or the greenhouse effect, are relatively slow-acting, but nuclear war could mean the end of all human life on earth within days. The relaxation of East-West tensions has meant that the fear of nuclear war has receded from public consciousness. But the danger is still there as long as there are enough weapons to kill the entire population of the world many times over. Nuclear weapons are still poised strike all the major cities in the Northern Hemisphere. It would only take a computer error to trigger a global war.

If we manage to avoid a nuclear war, there are still other dangers that could destroy us all. There’s a stick joke that the reason we have not been contacted by an alien civilization tend to destroy them when they reach our stage. But I have sufficient faith in the good sense of the public to believe that we might prove this wrong.

3 個解答

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  • Elena
    Lv 4
    2 0 年前
    最佳解答

    不管我們喜不喜歡,我們所居住的世界在過去一百年來改變了許多,且未來的一百年很可能會有更大的轉變.對某些人來說,他們會希望能停止這些變動,回到過去他們認為比較純淨簡單的日子.但人類的歷史則顯示出,過去的日子並不如我們想像中的美好.對少數享有特權的人來說,即使他們必須面對現代醫療資源的缺乏,生產對婦女而言是一件風險很高的事,但生活大致仍不算太差.但對為數眾多的人來說,生命是相當惡劣難受且短暫的.

    無論如何,即是我們希望回到過去,但沒有任何人能將時鐘倒轉回過去的時光.人類無法忘卻知識及技術.也沒有人能夠阻止未來科技繼續向前邁進.即使刪除了政府所有的研究資金,人類的競爭力仍會促使科技不斷進步.此外,即使提供大筆金錢,也沒有人能夠停止人類探索未知世界及基本科學的心.

    如果我們接受我們無法避免科學及技術改變世界的想法,我們至少應努力確保這些改變不會對我們的生活造成不當的影響.在一個民主的社會當中,這代表了社會大眾必須對科學有基本的認識及了解,而有能力根據所得知訊做出正確的決定,而不是將決定權一昧地交到專家的手中.此時,社會大眾對科學會產生相當矛盾的情緒.結果可預期的是,科學及技術上的新發展將為我們的生活水準帶來穩定而持續的成長,但同時因不了解,以致一般社會大眾同時也會對科學產生不信任的態度.由一個瘋狂的科學家在實驗室中製造出科學怪人-法蘭根斯坦(Frankenstein)的漫畫當中可清楚地看出人們對科學的不信任.但科學小說擁有龐大的讀者群,則同時表示出人們對科學的濃厚興趣.

    我們要如何利用一般大眾對科學的興趣,教導他們了解一些科學背景,以幫助他們能在一些有關酸雨, 溫室效應, 核子武器及基因工程等議題的判斷上,做出正確的決定呢?很顯然地,這些基本知識來自學校所學.但學校一般多以枯燥乏味的方式教導這些知識.孩子們必須透過死記硬背以通過考試的方式,來學會這些東西,而且他們也很難看出所學與日常生活有何關連.而且科學的教學通常訴諸於等式,利用等式以簡潔正確地描述出數學觀念,但這往往使一般人感到恐懼害怕.

    科學家及工程師多傾向利用等式來表達他們的想法,因為他們需要知道正確的數量.但對其他人來說,能對科學概念有性質上的了解便很足夠了.因此只需利用文字及圖表便能輕易表達出這些概念,而不需要利用到複雜難懂的等式.

    人們在學校所學的知識足以使我們能對科學有一個概括性的了解.但今日科學成長的速度實在是太快了,在我們離開學校或大學後總是不斷有新的發展產生.我在學校裡從來沒學過分子生物學或電晶體,但基因工程及電腦則是未來最有可能改變我們生活方式的兩種新發展.大眾書籍及雜誌中的相關科學文章或許能夠幫助我們了解及接受這些新發展,但即是最暢銷的大眾書籍,讀者也僅是龐大人口當中的少數.電視上有些非常不錯的科學節目,但大部份的科學節目都只是播出一些像魔術般的科學奇觀,而沒能解釋或證明這些現象是可以與我們所知的基本科學概念相結合.科學節目的製作人應體認到他們有責任教育社會大眾,而不是只帶給他們娛樂.

    在不久的將來,有哪些與科學相關的議題是需要社會大眾來做判斷和決定的呢?到目前為止最迫切的一個就是有關核子武器的議題.其他的全球問題,如糧食供給或溫室效應的影響相對上都較為緩慢,但核子戰爭則可能在幾天內結束全人類的生命.東西方世界緊張局面的緩和,代表了社會大眾降低了對核子戰爭威脅的恐懼.但只要世界還擁有足夠殺死全世界人類好幾回的核子武器,威脅便永遠無法解除.核子武器仍隨時備妥,能對北半球大部份的主要城市發射攻撃.只要電腦有一個小差錯,就能引起大範圍的全球戰爭.

    即使我們做到了避免核子戰爭的爆發,仍有其他可能消滅全人類的危機存在.有個愚蠢笑話指出,我們之所以還未遇到一個會摧毀全人類的外星文明,是因為他們還未到達我們的科學文明.但我對大眾的判斷力有足夠的信心,相信我們能證明這個笑話是錯的.

  • 1 0 年前

    不論是否我們喜歡, 我們生活所居住的世界在這幾百年改變了很多, 並且在下一個百年甚至改變得更多, 這是很有可能ㄉ。 一些人願意停止這些變化和去回到他們作為更純和更簡單的年紀看見的。 但是如同歷史一般, 過去的不是那ㄇ美好的

    無論如何, 一個人即使要, 人們回到更早的時), 知識和技術放了鐘能夠僅僅忘記 。 也不在上將來一個人能夠防止進一步的進步。 即使切斷了對於研究的所有政府錢, 競賽的力量仍然引起技術上的進步。 此外, 人們關於基本科學從思想不能停止調查心, 是否他們支付了它。如果我們接受我們不能防止科學和技術改變我們的世界, 我們處於確保在正確方向ㄝ, 過去的嘗試狀態能夠。

  • 匿名使用者
    2 0 年前

    這是用翻譯軟體翻的嗎?? 唸起來中文都不通.....

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