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The New Leadership Formula
In Gardner’s pioneering book Frames of Mind (1993), the notion of many types of intelligence was presented. Gardner noted seven basic types of intelligence: verbal, mathematical-logical, spatial, kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, and intra-personal. Gardner’s work seems to explain why traditional IQ tests are poor at predicting success in many of life’s endeavors. Goleman’s (1995) work extended Gardner’s into the area of emotional intelligence which is presented as more predictive of managerial and leadership success. The next logical step is to propose that just as there are many ways to measure Intelligence (IQ) so there are many ways to measure Leadership: thus the LQ© formula:
LQ© = f(AQ + BQ +CQ + DQ + EQ + IQ + KQ + MQ + PQ + RQ + SQ + XQ).
Learning to be an effective leader in any organization or group requires principles as expressed in the Leadership Quotients listed above and as shown in Figure 1. Even though business schools have the intention of teaching the latest leadership concepts, their research lags practitioner innovations with business schools not properly innovating their teaching (Vroman, 1995) especially in the area of leadership development. Future theories are being practiced in the real world even now as you read this.
Figure 1: LQ© THE LEADERSHIP QUOTIENT TRIANGLE
DQ IQ EQ RQ
The Leader’s Qualities:
Fit In Yet Stand Out
AQ BQ CQ PQ XQ KQ MQ SQ
Perceptions link leader through relating Fitability – through leader matching
People skills Situation
The 12 LQ© Leadership Quotients Introduced
While presented as individual elements, understand that there is a great deal of interaction between the Quotients. In the following brief descriptions, the quotients are organized in the three categories shown in Figure 1: Leader, Follower, and Environment.
LQ© Leader Quotients
DQ—Desire Quotient: DQ is effort, drive for results, persistence, hunger, need, tenacity, commitment, passion, and sense of urgency; basically a willingness to do whatever it takes. Desire can compensate for the lack of many natural characteristics as witnessed many times in sports. There are many examples of people more interested in doing the things necessary to become a leader realizing true leadership success, and those that are more interested in merely becoming a leader failing as leaders (Hesselbein and Cohen, 1999). The high jump record for a person with only one leg is 6’8”! Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in prison defending his beliefs when he could have disavowed his principles and gone free.
IQ—Intelligence Quotient: Intelligence is the best known of the quotients and is commonly thought of as “mental capacity.” However, intelligence is a highly complex set of wide ranging knowledge, skills, and abilities which are hard to define and measure. IQ is most often measured with tests that approximate reasoning power. Many feel that IQ tests measure how well someone can adapt to a form of assessment and that adaptation is in itself indicative of a person’s intelligence. The common view is that IQ simply predicts how well someone can perform in the American educational system, not how successful they will be in life.
EQ—Emotional Quotient: This is self-awareness, social awareness, empathy, exhibited mood, ability to control first impressions of self, and level of validity of assessment of self and others. The ability to read others and think like others relates to the continuum along the right side of the leadership leverage triangle in Figure 1: fit. This quotient looks at whether the leader’s emotions fit with what is demanded by the followers and the environments. Common sense, practicality, intuition, preconceptions, and basic assumptions are mentioned as a part of EQ, and are also found in the subsequent quotients, KQ and XQ.
The effective EQ leader will create an environment that will help ensure success. As Kenny Rogers sang, “you gotta know when to hold em, know when to fold em, know when to walk away, and know when to run.” Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2001) say clearly “emotionally intelligent men and women finish first (p.44).”
RQ—Reality Quotient: This is correctly clarifying inclusiveness, consensus, objectives, forward-sightedness, and visions. All of the great ideas in the world are of no value to the leader if they cannot make them “real.” The more accurately the leader can interpret the reality for his followers, the more influence that person will exercise over the group. Everyone defines a reality and the better you are at interpreting the reality for your followers, the better leader you will be.
LQ© Follower Quotients
AQ—Appearance Quotient: AQ starts with the manifestation of the correct level of confidence and then goes on to include voice, appropriate dress, vitality, alertness, mannerisms, physical appearance, posture, and an outward show of poise and demeanor. This is another example of the importance of fit in Figure 1. The leader’s appearance must fit with the environment in which leadership takes place. We are in a “new McWorld of global sales, [where] the trade mark has surpassed the sales item and the image has overtaken the product . . . (Barber, 1996: p. 67).” Image has surpassed substance and indeed an ounce of image is worth a pound of performance.
BQ—Behavioral Quotient: This quotient contains the exhibited external focus, ethics, values, credibility, direction, flexibility, savvy, social graces, timing, inspiration, and dependability. As shown in Figure 1, the relationship between the leader and followers is the key to the behavioral quotient: Does the leader behave in a way that appeals to the followers? The effective behavioral leader performs actions that reflect what they want to accomplish through their exhibited values, beliefs, assumptions and mental models. If a leader wants to behave certain ways, she can begin by acting in those ways and soon she will become as she desires.
CQ—Communications Quotient: Communication includes verbal, written, body language, tone, dialect, clarity, conviction, command, use of silence, volume, vocabulary, presentation skills, and listening effectiveness. All of these aspects of communication must fit with the leader’s followers and environment. Touted as the key to all relationships, strong, clear communication, can not be discounted as a powerful force in leadership
PQ—People Quotient: This is the ability to relate with people that includes relationships, social skills, use of poise and demeanor, teaming, facilitating others, networking, and reading others. All of these people quotient concepts must be exercised in a way that produces a fit between the leader, followers and environment, as shown in Figure 1.
In the past we have seen the need for followers to be dependent on a leader, we are now moving towards those that are mutually acceptable and benefiting as the only valid leader follower relationships. This includes having the organizational savvy to network within and outside organizations (Kilmann, Killman and Associates, 1991).
LQ© Environmental Quotients
XQ—eXperience Quotient: This includes past accomplishments learned and earned, mistakes, seizing the moment, discernment, maturity, insights, generalizations, and shows how one can learn through reflection. A person with a high XQ can mobilize commitment, can foster consensus, has good hunches, can spread revitalization—institutionalize it, can monitor and adjust strategies and plans, and has assumptions that build mental models on how they view the world. XQ includes intuition, sound judgment, decisiveness, learning and showing by example, understandability, adaptability, and people and organizational savvy. “Find one or two people who have leadership styles you really admire. Follow them, observe them, listen to them and imitate the things that you like (Motley, 1995: pages not numbered).”
KQ—Knowledge Quotient: The knowledge quotient includes the leader’s ability to learn, pay attention, recognize, imagine, and keep up-to-date on workplace technologies. It also includes adaptability, innovativeness, and the ability to evolve. Knowledge goes beyond information to include the wisdom to apply what one knows to the correct situation at the right time. Indeed, it is possible to redefine or enact an environment that is more suitable for your success.
MQ—Management Quotient: This quotient includes general administrative skills that could be categorized under systems and procedures, planning, organizing, controlling, and staffing. Other sub-categories of the management quotient include teaming, process, ability to motivate, evaluating and managing personnel, information and knowledge management, quality, technological savvy, and strategic thinking. MQ also includes understanding how to use financial and quantitative data; and technical and functional expertise as well as, industry and organizational understanding. MQ is the knowledge of time honored principles useful for getting groups to accomplish shared objectives in an efficient and effective way.
SQ—Situational Quotient: SQ is the ability to interpret environmental cues. This quotient includes timing, instinct, political savvy, curiosity, flexibility, ability to simplify complexity, fitability, imagination, and circumstances. This includes the Situational Leadership mode developed by Hersey (1985) and Blanchard that asserts that an effective manager varies structure and support based on those being managed and the situation at hand. SQ includes knowing when and where is the time to tell, sell, work for consensus, empower, or delegate.
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1.Intelligence Quotient 智力商數
2.Emotional Quotient 情緒商數
3.Adversity Quotient 逆境商數
1997/11/25出板，加拿大培訓諮詢專家Paul G. Stoltz, PhD.保羅·史托茲博士出版《挫折商：將障礙變成機會》一書