- 匿名使用者1 0 年前最佳解答
莎士比亞(William Shakespeare, 1564 - 1616)是伊莉莎白時代最偉大的劇作家。我們對他早年的生活所知極少，只知道他的父親是倫敦附近史特拉福(Stratford-upon-Avon)的一名地主，而童年的莎士比亞在家鄉的學習文學及拉丁語。直至1582年後，他移居倫敦當演員及劇作人，並於1589年左右發表他的第一部劇作《亨利六世第一部》(Henry VI, Part 1)。1594年莎士比亞成為宮內大臣劇團(Lord Chamberlain's Company)(即以後的國王劇團)的股東及演員，1599年他獲得環球劇院的主權，令他成為當時最活躍的劇壇人物。莎士比亞共寫了38個劇本，他的戲劇大致可分為三種：歷史劇、喜劇和悲劇。他在歷史劇中呈現英國的歷史，尤其是薔薇戰爭時期，這類劇本顯示他能使龐大複雜的歷史資料在舞台出現；他的喜劇所採文體頗廣，有的著重鬧劇成分，有的是浪漫喜劇，也有些內容較為嚴肅，稱為陰沉喜劇(dark comedies)；但莎士比亞最偉大的還是在於他的悲劇，而他在悲劇上也採用了廣泛的題材和手法。不過，如果依時期劃分，莎士比亞的戲劇大致又可分為四個時期：(1)實驗時期，大約是1589年至1593年左右，重要作品包括《愛的徒勞》(Love's Labour's Lost, 1594)、《維洛那二紳士》(Two Gentlemen of Verona, 1594)及《錯誤的喜劇》(The Comedy of Errors, 1592)；(2)發展時期，大約至1601年為止，重要作品包括部分著名的浪漫喜劇，包括《威尼斯商人》(The Merchant of Venice, 1596)、《仲夏夜之夢》(A Midsummer Night's Dream, 1595)以及他最享盛名的愛情悲劇《羅密歐與茱麗葉》(Romeo and Juliet, 1595)等；(3)高峰期，大約由1601年至1610年左右，這時莎士比亞創作的黃金時間，他大部份最著名的劇本都是這個時期創作的，包括他的四大悲劇《哈姆雷特》(Hamlet, 1601)、《奧瑟羅》(Othello, 1604)、《李爾王》(King Lear, 1605)及《馬克白》(Macbeth, 1606)；(4)後期，大約1604年以後，這時的作品有《冬天的故事》(A Winter's Tale, 1610)及《暴風雨》(The Tempest, 1611)等。莎士比亞最偉大的天才表現在他的悲劇上。從某個角度而言，莎士比亞為當時最成功，最富商業價值的劇作家。他亦跟古希望三大悲劇家艾思奇利斯(Aeschylus)、索福克里斯(Sophocles)及幼里匹蒂斯(Euripides)合稱戲劇史上四大悲劇家。影響後世甚深！參考資料： 知識+
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- 匿名使用者1 0 年前
- 匿名使用者1 0 年前
It is natural that we should be curious about the life of a writer who is almost unanimously considered to be the greatest figure of English literature. Fortunately, more facts are known about Shakespeare than about most Elizabethan playwrights. We know that he was born in Stratford-on-Avon in April (probably on the 23rd), 1564, and that his father, John, was a fairly prominent citizen of the town who eventually became an alderman and bailiff. Shakespeare was presumably educated at the local school in Stratford. He never attended a university. In 1582 he married Anne Hathaway. They had a daughter in 1583, and twins, a boy and a girl, in 1585. After this there is no factual information for seven years, but we know that by 1592 he was in London working as an actor and a playwright, for in this year he was attacked in writing by a resentful rival.
In 1593 the London theaters were closed because of an outbreak of the plague, and Shakespeare, temporarily out of work, needed the support of a private patron. He got such support from the Earl of Southampton, a wealthy young nobleman to whom Shakespeare dedicated two rather long narrative poems: Venus and Adonis (1593) and The Rape of Lucrece (1594). When the theaters reopened, Shakespeare became a member of the most successful company of actors in London, the Lord Chamberlain's Men. He became a shareholder in this company and its principal playwright. By 1597, Shakespeare had prospered sufficiently to be able to buy a fine house back home in Stratford. In 1599 Shakespeare's company built the famous Globe Theater, where most of his best-known plays were performed. Queen Elizabeth often summoned the Lord Chamberlain's Men to put on private performances for her at court. When James I came to the throne in 1603, he took over the Lord Chamberlain's Men as his own acting company and renamed it The King's Men. By this time Shakespeare's status as the greatest dramatist of his day was securely established.
It is not possible to know exactly when Shakespeare wrote each of his thirty-seven plays. We know when most of the plays were first published, but an Elizabethan playwright would have been much more concerned with getting his plays performed than with seeing them in print, and the date of composition may have preceded the date of publication by several years. Still, scholars have tried to date the plays by poring over what evidence there is both inside and outside the text, and their hypotheses provide a reasonable basis for considering the development of Shakespeare's art. He began, it seems, by writing comedies (The Comedy of Errors, Love's Labor's Lost) and plays based on English history (the three Henry VI plays, Richard III). His first tragedy, Titus Andronicus, was written about 1593 or 1594, Romeo andJuliti came between 1594 and 1596, along with the finest of his early comedies, A Midsummer Night's Dream. The Merchant of Venice was written about 1597, Julius Caesar about 1599.
Just before the turn of the century, Shakespeare wrote a small group of marvelous romantic comedies: Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It. and Twelfth flight. Then, with the dawning of the new century, came the period of the great tragedies: Hamlet (1600-1601), Othello (1603-1604), King Lear and Macbeth (1605-1606), Antony and Cleopatra (1606-1607), and Coriolanus (1607-1609). Shakespeare's last plays, apart from a final dramatization of English history in Henry VIII, are often called the "romances" because of their freely imaginative settings and themes and because they do not fit readily into established molds of comedy or tragedy. The greatest of these are The Winter's Tale (1610-1611) and The Tempest (1611).
Shakespeare seems to have retired to Stratford about 1610, though he continued to write for the London stage. He had made considerable money from his career as an actor, playwright, and company shareholder. He invested substantially in Stratford real estate and he led the life of a prominent and respected citizen. He died on April 23, 1616 (probably his fifty-second birthday), and was buried in the local church. Seven years after his death, some of his friends and fellow actors collected and published an edition of thirty-six of the plays in one large volume --the famous First Folio (1623).