MINA 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

急~麻煩各位幫我翻譯ㄧ下

Abstract

In response to aggressive attempts to control dioxin emissions over the last 35 years, human exposures to dioxins from the environment have declined significantly. The primary source of human exposure to dioxins at present is food. The sources of dioxins in food are not well understood and are probably varied. Data on the levels of dioxins measured in various foods for samples collected from 2000 to 2002 have recently been released by the US Food and Drug Administration as part of its Total Diet Study. Data on samples collected in 1999, and released in 2002, are also available. Based on those data and on the US Department of Agriculture_s most recent food consumption survey (1994–1996 & 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals), estimates of dioxin intake for the total US population and for three age groups of children were obtained. Results show that the most recent mean dietary exposures for all groups are below 2 pg TEQ/kg BW/day, the tolerable daily intake established for dioxins by the World Health Organization. Between 1999 and 2002 mean dioxin intakes from food appear to have decreased, but when estimates are adjusted based on a standardized limit of detection and evaluating only those {congener • food} combinations common to all 4 years, no trend is apparent. When dioxin concentrations below the limit of detection are represented by one-half the limit, approximately 5% of the intake estimates for 2-year-olds and 1% of the intake estimates for 6-year-olds exceed the tolerable daily intake by about 10%, although such upper-percentile estimates should not be equated with excess risk. When non-detectable dioxin values are set to zero (i.e., when only dioxin values actually measured are used), only 1% of intake estimates exceed the tolerable daily intake for 2-year-olds. As expected, about 50% of daily dietary dioxin intake by the total US population is attributable to meat and dairy products, based on the same food group classifications used by the National Academy of Sciences_ Committee on the Implications of Dioxin in the Food Supply. This information may be useful for targeting future risk management activities. _ 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    樓上是翻譯機翻的,要經過重組後才能用

    2005-06-23 03:31:29 補充:

    摘要

    In response to aggressive attempts to control dioxin emissions over the last 35 years, human exposures to dioxins from the environment have declined significantly.

    在績極試圖管制過去35 年期間產生的戴奧辛排放量之後,環境中戴奧辛的對人類的影響已有明顯下降。

    The primary source of human exposure to dioxins at present is food.

    目前人體接觸戴奧辛最主要的來源即是食物,

    The sources of dioxins in food are not well understood and are probably varied.

    戴奧辛在食物中產生的根源尚未十分瞭解而且可能有很多種原因,

    Data on the levels of dioxins measured in various foods for samples collected from 2000 to 2002 have recently been released by the US Food and Drug Administration as part of its Total Diet Study.

    最近美國食品藥物管理局將2000~2002年以各種食物採樣,所針對戴奧辛上的檢測資料,作為它的總飲食研究的一部分。

    Data on samples collected in 1999, and released in 2002, are also available.

    1999 年的所採樣的資料, 及2002年所公佈的的資料皆可採用。

    Based on those data and on the US Department of Agriculture_s most recent food consumption survey (1994–1996 & 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals), estimates of dioxin intake for the total US population and for three age groups of children were obtained.

    根據那些資料和美國農委會在最近食物消耗量調查(1994-1996 & 1998 年的個人連續攝食之調查), 估計美國人全體及三種年齡層的孩童均有攝取到戴奧辛。

    Results show that the most recent mean 庄dietary exposures for all groups are below 2 pg TEQ/kg BW/day, the tolerable daily intake established for dioxins by the World Health Organization. Between 1999 and 2002 mean dioxin intakes from food appear to have decreased,

    結果表示, 最近平均飲食中戴奧辛的攝取族群在每日2pg TEQ/kg bw以下, 這是由世界衛生組織訂定的每日容許攝取量。1999 年和2002 年間的平均由食物中攝取戴奧辛的值去看似減少了,

    but when estimates are adjusted based on a standardized limit of detection and evaluating only those {congener • food} combinations common to all 4 years, no trend is apparent.

    但當依照標準化規範下進行調整檢測, 只對那幾種{同類食品}組合做4 年評估, 結果都差不多,並無明顯變化。

    When dioxin concentrations below the limit of detection are represented by one-half the limit, approximately 5% of the intake estimates for 2-year-olds and 1% of the intake estimates for 6-year-olds exceed the tolerable daily intake by about 10%,

    當戴奧辛濃度在偵查之限制量由二分之一的量取代, 則大約有5% 被2 歲的孩童攝取,1%被6 歲的孩童攝取, 超出每日容許攝取量約10%,

    although such upper-percentile estimates should not be equated with excess risk. When non-detectable dioxin values are set to zero (i.e., when only dioxin values actually measured are used),

    雖然以上超出百分比不應被視同有過量攝取風險, 然而當無法偵測到的戴奧辛值設定為零(即, 當只有戴奧辛值實際上被測出時),

    only 1% of intake estimates exceed the tolerable daily intake for 2-year-olds.

    估計只有1% 2 歲的孩童有超出每日容許攝取量。

    As expected, about 50% of daily dietary dioxin intake by the total US population is attributable to meat and dairy products, based on the same food group classifications used by the National Academy of Sciences_ Committee on the Implications of Dioxin in the Food Supply.

    如預料中, 根據由國家科學院委員會對相同食物種類做分類, 所訂的戴奧辛食品的涵義, 美國人口每日攝入含戴奧辛的食品有50%來自肉類及乳製品。

    This information may be useful for targeting future risk management activities. _ 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    也許這項資訊對於未來目標風險管理會有幫助。

    2005 年Elsevier 有限公司版權所有。

    參考資料: myself
  • 匿名使用者
    1 0 年前

    摘要 以回應進取的企圖控制戴奧辛放射在過去35 年期間, 對戴奧辛的人的暴露從環境顯著declined 。主要源泉的對戴奧辛的人的暴露當前是食物。戴奧辛的來源在食物裡不是好瞭解和大概變化。資料在戴奧辛上的水平測量了以各種各樣的食物為樣品從2000 年被收集到2002 被美國糧食與藥物管理局最近發布了作為它的總飲食研究一部分。1999 年關於樣品的資料被收集, 2002 年和被發布, 是還可利用的。根據那些資料和Agriculture_s 的美國部門多數最近食物消耗量調查(攝食1994-1996 & 1998 年繼續的勘測由Individuals), 戴奧辛進水閘的估計為總美國人口和為三年齡組孩子被獲得了。結果表示, 最近卑鄙飲食曝光為所有小組是在2 頁TEQ/kg 以下BW/day, 能忍受的每日進水閘為戴奧辛建立由世界衛生組織。在1999 年和2002 個卑鄙戴奧辛進水閘之間從食物看上去減少了, 但當估計被調整根據了一個規範化的極限偵查和評估只那些{同種類? 食物} 組合共同對所有4 年, 沒有趨向是明顯的。當戴奧辛集中在偵查之下極限由二分之一代表極限, 大約5% 進水閘估計2 歲的和1% 進水閘估計6 歲的超出能忍受的每日進水閘大約10%, 雖然這樣上部百分數估計不應該被視同以剩餘風險。當non-detectable 戴奧辛價值調整到零(即, 當唯一戴奧辛價值實際上被測量被使用), 只有1% 進水閘估計超出能忍受的每日進水閘2 歲的。依照由總美國人口期望, 大約50% 每日飲食戴奧辛進水閘是可歸屬的對肉和乳製品, 根據同樣食物種類分類由國家科學院_ 委員會使用在戴奧辛的涵義在食品供應。這資訊也許是有用的為瞄準未來風險管理活動_ 2005 年Elsevier 有限公司。版權所有。

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