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    Art of War - Sun Tzu

    Chapter 1 : Estimates

    War is a matter of vital importance to the state; a matter

    of life or death, the road either to survival or to ruin.

    Hence, it is imperative that it be studied thoroughly.

    Therefore, appraise it in terms of the five fundamental

    factors and make comparisons of the various conditions of

    the antagonistic sides in order to ascertain the results of

    a war. The first of these factors is politics; the second,

    weather; the third, terrain; the fourth, the commander; and

    the fifth, doctrine. Politics means the thing which causes

    the people to be in harmony with their ruler so that they

    will follow him in disregard of their lives and without

    fear of any danger. Weather signifies night and day, cold

    and heat, fine days and rain, and change of seasons.

    Terrain means distances, and refers to whether the ground

    is traversed with ease or difficulty and to whether it is

    open or constricted, and influences your chances of life or

    death. The commander stands for the general's qualities of

    wisdom, sincerity, benevolence, courage, and strictness.

    Doctrine is to be understood as the organization of the

    army, the gradations of rank among the officers, the

    regulations of supply routes, and the provision of military

    materials to the army.

    These five fundamental factors are familiar to every

    general. Those who master them win; those who do not are

    defeated. Therefore, in laying plans, compare the following

    seven elements, appraising them with the utmost care.

    1.Which ruler is wise and more able? 2.Which commander is

    more talented? 3.Which army obtains the advantages of

    nature and the terrain? 4.In which army are regulations and

    instructions better carried out? 5.Which troops are

    stronger? 6.Which army has the better-trained officers and

    men? 7.Which army administers rewards and punishments in a

    more enlightened and correct way?

    By means of these seven elements, I shall be able to

    forecast which side will be victorious and which will be

    defeated.

    The general who heeds my counsel is sure to win. Such a

    general should be retained in command. One who ignores my

    counsel is certain to be defeated. Such a one should be

    dismissed.

    Having paid attention to my counsel and plans, the general

    must create a situation which will contribute to their

    accomplishment. By "situation" I mean he should take the

    field situation into consideration and act in accordance

    with what is advantageous.

    All warfare is based on deception. Therefore, when capable

    of attacking, feign incapacity; when active in moving

    troops, feign inactivity. When near the enemy, make it seem

    that you are far away; when far away, make it seem that you

    are near. Hold out baits to lure the enemy. Strike the

    enemy when he is in disorder. Prepare against the enemy

    when he is secure at all points. Avoid the enemy for the

    time being when he is stronger. If your opponent is of

    choleric temper, try to irritate him. If he is arrogant,

    try to encourage his egotism. If the enemy troops are well

    prepared after reorganization, try to wear them down. If

    they are united, try to sow dissension among them. Attack

    the enemy where he is unprepared, and appear where you are

    not expected. These are the keys to victory for a

    strategist. It is not possible to formulate them in detail

    beforehand.

    Now, if the estimates made before a battle indicate

    victory, it is because careful calculations show that your

    conditions are more favorable than those of your enemy; if

    they indicate defeat, it is because careful calculations

    show that favorable conditions for a battle are fewer. With

    more careful calculations, one can win; with less, one

    cannot. How much less chance of victory has one who makes

    no calculations at all! By this means, one can foresee the

    outcome of a battle.

    Chapter 2 : Waging War

    In operations of war-when one thousand fast four-horse

    chariots onethousand heavy chariots, and one thousand

    mail-clad soldiers are required; when provisions are

    transported for a thousand li; when thereare expenditures

    at home and at the front, and stipends for entertainment of

    envoys and advisers-the cost of materials such as glue and

    lacquer, and of chariots and armor, will amount to one

    thousand pieces of gold a day. One hundred thousand troops

    may be dispatched only when this money is in hand.

    A speedy victory is the main object in war. If this is long

    in coming, weapons are blunted and morale depressed. If

    troops are attacking cities, their strength will be

    exhausted. When the army engages in protracted campaigns,

    the resources of the state will fall short. When your

    weapons are dulled and ardor dampened, your strength

    exhausted and treasure spent, the chieftains of the

    neighboring states will take advantage of your crisis to

    act. In that case, no man, however wise, will be able to

    avert the disastrous consequences that ensue. Thus, while

    we have heard of stupid haste in war, we have not yet seen

    a clever operation that was prolonged. for there has never

    been a protracted war which benefited a country. Therefore,

    those unable to understand the evils inherent in employing

    troops are equally unable to understand the advantageous

    ways of doing so.

    Those adept in waging war do not require a second levy of

    conscripts or more that two provisionings. They carry

    military equipment from the homeland, but rely on the enemy

    for provisions. Thus, the army is plentifully provided with

    food.

    When a country is impoverished by military operations, it

    is due to distant transportation; carrying supplies for

    great distances renders the people destitute. Where troops

    are gathered, prices go up. When prices rise, the wealth of

    the people is drained away. When wealth is drained away,

    the people will be afflicted with urgent and heavy

    exactions. With this loss of wealth and exhaustion of

    strength, the households in the country will be extremely

    poor and seven-tenths of their wealth dissipated. As to

    government expenditures, those due to broken-down chariots,

    worn-out horses, armor and helmets, bows and arrows, spears

    and shields, protective mantlets, draft oxen, and wagons

    will amount to 60 percent of the total.

    Hence, a wise general sees to it that his troops feed on

    the enemy, for one zhong of the enemy's provisions is

    equivalent to twenty of one's own and one shi of the

    enemy's fodder to twenty shi of one's own.

    In order to make the soldiers courageous in overcoming the

    enemy, they must be roused to anger. In order to capture

    more booty from the enemy, soldiers must have their

    rewards.

    Therefore, in chariot fighting when more than ten chariots

    are captured, reward those who take the first. Replace the

    enemy's flags and banners with you own, mix the captured

    chariots with yours, and mount them. Treat the prisoners of

    war well, and care for them. This is called "winning a

    battle and becoming stronger."

    Hence, what is valued in war is victory, not prolonged

    operations. And the general who understands how to employ

    troops is the minister of the people's fate and arbiter of

    the nation's destiny.

    Chapter 3 : Offensive Strategy

    Generally, in war the best policy is to take a state

    intact; to ruin it is inferior to this. To capture the

    enemy's entire army is better than to destroy it; to take

    intact a regiment, a company, or a squad is better than to

    destroy them. For to win one hundred victories in one

    hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the

    enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence.

    Thus, what is of supreme importance in war is to attack the

    enemy's strategy. Next best is to disrupt his alliances by

    diplomacy. The next best is to attack his army. And the

    worst policy is to attack cities.Attack cities only when

    there is no alternative because to prepare big shields and

    wagons and make ready the necessary arms and equipment

    require at least three months, and to pile up earthen ramps

    against the walls requires an additional three months. The

    general, unable to control his impatience, will order his

    troops to swarm up the wall like ants, with the result that

    one-third of them will be killed without taking the city.

    Such is the calamity of attacking cities.

    Thus, those skilled in war subdue the enemy's army without

    battle. They capture the enemy's cities without assaulting

    them and overthrow his state without protracted operations.

    Their aim is to take all under heaven intact by strategic

    considerations. Thus, their troops are not worn out and

    their gains will be complete. This is the art of offensive

    strategy.

    Consequently, the art of using troops is this: When ten to

    the enemy's one, surround him. When five times his

    strength, attack him. If double his strength, divide him.

    If equally matched, you may engage him with some good plan.

    If weaker numerically, be capable of withdrawing. And if in

    all respects unequal, be capable of eluding him, for a

    small force is but booty for one more powerful if it fights

    recklessly.

    Now, the general is the assistant to the sovereign of the

    state. If this assistance is all-embracing, the state will

    surely be strong; if defective, the state will certainly be

    weak.

    Now, there are three ways in which a sovereign can bring

    misfortune upon his army:

    1.When ignorant that the army should not advance, to order

    anadvance; or when ignorant that it should not retire, to

    order a retirement. This is described as "hobbling the

    army." 2.When ignorant of military affairs, to interfere in

    their administration. This causes the officers to be

    perplexed. 3.When ignorant of command problems, to

    interfere with the direction of the fighting. This

    engenders doubts in the minds of the officers.

    If the army is confused and suspicious, neighboring rulers

    will take advantage of this and cause trouble. This is what

    is meant by: "A confused army leads to another's victory."

    Thus, there are five points in which victory may be

    predicted:

    1.He who knows when he can fight and when he cannot will be

    victorious. 2.He who understands how to fight in accordance

    with the strength of antagonistic forces will be

    victorious. 3.He whose ranks are united in purpose will be

    victorious. 4.He who is well prepared and lies in wait for

    an enemy who is not well prepared will be victorious. 5.He

    whose generals are able and not interfered with by the

    sovereign will be victorious.

    It is in these five matters that the way to victory is

    known.

    Therefore, I say: Know your enemy and know yourself; in a

    hundred battles, you will never be defeated. When you are

    ignorant of the enemy but know yourself, your chances of

    winning or losing are equal. If ignorant both of your enemy

    and of yourself, you are sure to be defeated in every

    battle.

    Chapter 4 : Dispositions

    The skillful warriors in ancient times first made

    themselves invincible and then awaited the enemy's moment

    of vulnerability. Invincibility depends on oneself, but the

    enemy' vulnerability on himself. It follows that those

    skilled in war can make themselves invincible but cannot

    cause an enemy to be certainly vulnerable. Therefore, it

    can be said that, one may know how to win, but cannot

    necessarily do so.

    Defend yourself when you cannot defeat the enemy, and

    attack the enemy when you can. One defends when his

    strangth is inadequate; he attacks when it is abundant.

    Those who are skilled in defense hide themselves as under

    the nine-fold earth; those in attack flash forth as from

    above the ninefold heavens. Thus, they are capable both of

    protecting themselves and of gaining a complete victory.

    To foresee a victory which the ordinary man can foresee is

    not the acme of excellence. Neither is it if you triumph in

    battle and are universally acclaimed "expert," for to lift

    an autumn down requires no great strength, to distinguish

    between the sun and moon is no test of vision, to hear the

    thunderclap is no indication of acute hearing. In ancient

    times, those called skilled in war conquered an enemy

    easily conquered. And, therefore, the victories won by a

    master of war gain him neither reputation for wisdom nor

    merit for courage. For he wins his victories without

    erring. Without erring he establishes the certainty of his

    victory; he conquers an enemy already defeated. Therefore,

    the skillful commander takes up a position in which he

    cannot be defeated and misses no opportunity to overcome

    him enemy. Thus, a victorious army always seeks battle

    after his plans indicate that victory is possible under

    them, whereas an army destined to defeat fights in the hope

    of winning but without any planning. Those skilled in war

    cultivate their policies and strictly adhere to the laws

    and regulations. Thus, it is in their power to control

    success.

    Now, the elements of the art of war are first, the

    measurement of space; second, the estimation of quantities;

    third, calculations; fourth, comparisons; and fifth,

    chances of victory. Measurements of space are derived from

    the ground. Quantities, comparisons from figures, and

    victory from comparisons. Thus, a victorious army is as one

    yi balanced against a grain, and a defeated army is as a

    grain balanced against one yi.

    It is because of disposition that a victorious general is

    able to make his soldiers fight with the effect of pent-up

    waters which, suddenly released, plunge into a bottomless

    abyss.

    Chapter 5 : Posture of Army

    Generally, management of a large force is the same as

    management of a few men. It is a matter of organization.

    And to direct a large force is the same as to direct a few

    men. This is a matter of formations and signals. That the

    army is certain to sustain the enemy's attack without

    suffering defeat is due to operations of the extraordinary

    and the normal forces. Troops thrown against the enemy as a

    grindstone against eggs is an example of a solid acting

    upon a void.

    Generally, in battle, use the normal force to engage and

    use the extraordinary forces to win. Now, the resources of

    those skilled in the use of extraordinary forces are as

    infinite as the heavens and earth, as inexhaustible as the

    flow of the great rivers, for they end and recommence -

    cyclical, as are the movements of the sun and moon. They

    die away and are reborn - recurrent, as are the passing

    seasons. The musical notes are the passing seasons. The

    musical notes are only five in number, but their

    combinations are so infinite that one cannot visualize them

    all. The flavors are only five in number, but their blends

    are so various that one cannot taste them all. In battle,

    there are only the normal and extraordinary forces, but

    their combinations are limitless; none can comprehend them

    all. For these two forces are mutually reproductive. It is

    like moving in an endless circle. Who can exhaust the

    possibility of their combination?

    When torrential water tosses boulders, it is because of its

    momentum; when the strike of a hawk breaks the body of its

    prey, it is because of timing. Thus, the momentum of one

    skilled in war is overwhelming, and his attack precisely

    timed. His potential is that of a fully drawn crossbow; his

    timing, that of the release of the trigger.

    In tumult and uproar, the battle seems chaotic, but there

    must be no disorder in one's own troops. The battlefield

    may seem in confusion and chaos, but one's array must be in

    good order. That will be proof against defeat. Apparent

    confusion is a product of good order; apparent cowardice,

    of courage; apparent weakness, of strength. Order of

    disorder depends on organization and direction; courage or

    cowardice on circumstances; strength or weakness on

    tactical dispositions. Thus, one who is skilled at making

    the enemy move does so by creating a situation, according

    to which the enemy will act. He entices the enemy with

    something he is certain to want. He keeps the enemy on the

    move by holding out bait and then attacks him with picked

    troops.

    Therefore, a skilled commander seeks victory from the

    situation and does not demand it of his subordinates. He

    selects suitable men and exploits the situation. He who

    utilizes the situation uses his men in fighting as one

    rolls logs or stones. Now, the nature of logs and stones is

    that on stable ground they are static; on a slope, they

    move. If square, they stop; if round, they roll. Thus, the

    energy of troops skillfully commanded in battle may be

    compared to the momentum of round boulders which roll down

    from a mountain thousands of feet in height.

    Chapter 6 : Void and Actuality

    Generally, he who occupies the field of battle first and

    awaits his enemy is at ease, and he who comes later to the

    scene and rushes into the fight is weary. And, therefore,

    those skilled in war bring the enemy to the field of battle

    and are not brought there by him. One able to make the

    enemy come of his own accord does so by offering him some

    advantage. And one able to stop him from coming does so by

    preventing him. Thus, when the enemy is at ease, be able to

    tire him, when well fed, to starve him, when at rest to

    make him move.

    Appear at places which he is unable to rescue; move swiftly

    in a direction where you are least expected.

    That you may march a thousand li without tiring yourself is

    because you travel where there is no enemy. To be certain

    to take what you attack is to attack a place the enemy does

    not or cannot protect. To be certain to hold what you

    defend is to defend a place the enemy dares not or is not

    able to attack. Therefore, against those skilled in

    attack, the enemy does not know where to defend, and

    against the experts in defense, the enemy does not know

    where to attack.

    How subtle and insubstantial, that the expert leaves no

    trace. How divinely mysterious, that he is inaudible. Thus,

    he is master of his enemy's fate. His offensive will be

    irresistible if he makes for his enemy's weak positions; he

    cannot be overtaken when he withdraws if he moves swiftly.

    When I wish o give battle, my enemy, even though protected

    by high walls and deep moats, cannot help but engage me,

    for I attack a position he must relieve. When I wish to

    avoid battle, I may defend myself simply be drawing a line

    on the ground; the enemy will be unable to attack me

    because I divert him from going where he wishes.

    If I am able to determine the enemy's dispositions while,

    at the same time, I conceal my own, then I can concentrate

    my forces and his must be divided. And if I concentrate

    while he divides, I can use my entire strength to attack a

    fraction of his. Therefore, I will be numerically superior.

    Then, if I am able to use many to strike few at the

    selected point, those I deal with will fall into hopeless

    straits. The enemy must not know where I intend to give

    battle. For if he does not know where I intend to give

    battle, he must prepare in a great many places. And when he

    prepares in a great many places, those I have to fight in

    will be few. For if he prepares to the front, his rear will

    be weak, and if to the rear, his front will be fragile. If

    he strengthens his left, his right will be vulnerable, and

    if his right, there will be few troops on his left. And

    when he sends troops everywhere, he will be weak

    everywhere. Numerical weakness comes from having to guard

    against possible attacks; numerical strength from forcing

    the enemy to make these preparations against us.

    If one knows where and when a battle will be fought, his

    troops can march a thousand li and meet on the field. But

    if one knows neither the battleground nor the day of

    battle, the left will be unable to aid the right and the

    right will be unable to aid the left, and the van will be

    unable to support the rear and the rear, the van. How much

    more is this so when separated by several tens of li or,

    indeed, be even a few! Although I estimate the troops of

    Yue as many, of what benefit is this superiority with

    respect to the outcome of war? Thus, I say that victory can

    be achieved. For even if the enemy is numerically stronger,

    I can prevent him from engaging.

    Therefore, analyze the enemy's plans so that you will know

    his shortcomings as strong points. Agitate him in order to

    ascertain the pattern of his movement. Lure him out to

    reveal his dispositions and ascertain his position. Launch

    a probing attack in order to learn where his strength is

    abundant and where deficient. The ultimate in disposing

    one's troops is to conceal them without ascertainable

    shape. Then the most penetrating spies cannot pry nor can

    the wise lay plans against you. It is according to the

    situations that plans are laid for victory, but the

    multitude does not comprehend this. Although everyone can

    see the outward aspects, none understands how the victory

    is achieved. Therefore, when a victory is won, one's

    tactics are not repeated. One should always respond to

    circumstances in an infinite variety of ways.

    Now, an army may be likened to water, for just as flowing

    water avoids the heights and hastens to the lowlands, so an

    army should avoid strength and strike weakness. And as

    water shapes its flow in accordance with the ground, so an

    army manages its victory in accordance with the situation

    of the enemy. And as water has no constant form, there are

    in warfare no constant conditions. Thus, one able to win

    the victory by modifying his tactics in accordance with the

    enemy situation may be said to be divine. Of the five

    elements [water, fire, metal, wood, and earth], none is

    always predominant; of the four seasons, none lasts

    forever; of the days, some are long and some short, and the

    moon waxes and wanes. That is also the law of employing

    troops.

    Chapter 7 : Manuevering

    Normally, in war, the general receives his commands from

    the sovereign. During the process from assembling his

    troops and mobilizing the people to blending the army into

    a harmonious entity and encamping it, nothing is more

    difficult than the art of maneuvering for advantageous

    positions. What is difficult about it is to make the

    devious route the most direct routeand divert the enemy by

    enticing him with a bait. So doing, you may set out after

    he does and arrive at the battlefield before him. One able

    to do this shows the knowledge of the artifice of

    diversion.

    Therefore, both advantage and danger are inherent in

    maneuvering for an advantageous position. One who sets the

    entire army in moriton with impediments to pursue an

    advantageous position will not attain it. If he abandons

    the camp and all the impediments to contend for advantage,

    the stores will be lost. Thus, if one orders his men to

    make forced marches without armor, stopping neithe day nor

    night, covering double the usual distance at a stretch, and

    doing a hundred li to wrest an advantage, it is probable

    that the commanders will be captured. The stronger men will

    arrive first and the feeble ones will struggle along

    behind; so, if this method is used, only one-tenth of the

    army will reach its destination. In a forced march of fifty

    li, the commander of the van will probably fall, but half

    the army will arrive. Ina forced march of thirty li, just

    two-thirds will arrive. It follows that an army which lacks

    heavy equipment, fodder, food, and stores will be lost.

    One who is not acquainted with the designs of his neighbors

    should not enter into aliances with them. Those who do not

    know the conditions of mountains and forests, hazardous

    defiles, marshes and swamps, cannot conduct the march of an

    army. Those who do not use local guides are unable to

    obtain the advantages of the ground. Now, war is based on

    deception. Move when it is advantageous and create changes

    in the situation by dispersal and concentration of

    forces,. When campainging, be swift as the wind; in

    leisurely marching, majestic as the forest; in raiding and

    plundering, be fierce as fire; in standing, firm as the

    mountains. When hiding, be as unfathomable as things behind

    the clouds; when moving, fall like a thunderbolt. When you

    plunder the countryside, divide your forces. When you

    conquer territory, defend strategic points. Weigh the

    situation before you move. He who knows the artifice of

    diversion will be victorious. Such is the art of

    manuevering.

    Chapter 10: Terrain

    Some terrain is easily passable, in some you get hung up,

    some makes for a standoff, some is narrow, some is steep,

    some is wide open.

    When both sides can come and go, the terrain is said to be

    easily passable. When the terrain is easily passable, take

    up your position first, choosing the high and sunny side,

    convenient to supply routes, for advantage in battle.

    When you can go but have a hard time getting back, you are

    said to be hung up. On this type of terrain, if the

    opponent is unprepared, you will prevail if you go forth,

    but if the enemy is prepared, if you go forth and do not

    prevail you will have a hard time getting back, to your

    disadvantage.

    When it is disadvantageous for either side to go forth, it

    is called standoff terrain. On standoff terrain, even

    though the opponent offers you an advantage, you do not go

    for it -- you withdraw, inducing the enemy half out, and

    then you attack, to your advantage.

    On narrow terrain, if you are there first, you should fill

    it up to await the opponent. If the opponent is there

    first, do not pursue if the opponent fills the narrows.

    Pursue if the opponent does not fill the narrows.

    On steep terrain, if you are there first, you should occupy

    the high and sunny side to await the opponent. If the

    opponent is there first, withdraw from there and do not

    pursue.

    On wide-open terrain, the force of momentum is equalized,

    and it is hard to make a challenge, disadvantageous to

    fight.

    Understanding these six kinds of terrain is the highest

    responsibility of the general, and it is imperative to

    examine them.

    So among military forces there are those who rush, those

    who tarry, those who fall, those who crumble, those who

    riot, and those who get beaten. These are not natural

    disasters, but faults of the generals.

    Those who have equal momentum but strike ten with one are

    in a rush. Those whose soldiers are strong but whose

    officers are weak tarry. Those whose officers are strong

    but whose soldiers are weak fall. When colonels are angry

    and obstreperous, and fight on their own out of spite when

    they meet opponents, and the generals do not know their

    abilities, they crumble.

    When the generals are weak and lack authority, instructions

    are not clear, officers and soldiers lack consistency, and

    they form battle lines every which way, this is riot. When

    the generals cannot assess opponents, clash with much

    greater numbers or more powerful forces, and do not sort

    out the levels of skill among their own troops, these are

    the ones who get beaten.

    These six are ways to defeat. Understanding this is the

    ultimate responsibility of the generals; they must be

    examined.

    The contour of the land is an aid to an army; sizing up

    opponents to determine victory, assessing dangers and

    distances, is the proper course of action for military

    leaders. Those who do battle knowing these will win, those

    who do battle without knowing these will lose.

    Therefore, when the laws of war indicate certain victory it

    is surely appropriate to do battle, even if the government

    says there is to be no battle. If the laws of war do not

    indicate victory, it is appropriate not to do battle, even

    if the government orders war. Thus one advances without

    seeking glory, retreats without avoiding blame, only

    protecting people, to the benefit of the government as

    well, thus rendering valuable service to the nation.

    Look upon your soldiers as you do infants, and they

    willingly go into deep valleys with you; look upon your

    soldiers as beloved children, and they willingly die with

    you.

    If you are so nice to them that you cannot employ them, so

    kind to them that you cannot command them, so casual with

    them that you cannot establish order, they are like spoiled

    children, useless.

    If you know your soldiers are capable of striking, but do

    not know whether the enemy is invulnerable to a strike, you

    have half a chance of winning. If you know the enemy is

    vulnerable to a strike, but do not know if your soldiers

    are incapable of making such a strike, you have half a

    chance of winning. If you know the enemy is vulnerable to a

    strike, and know your soldiers can make the strike, but do

    not know if the lay of the land makes it unsuitable for

    battle, you have half a chance of winning.

    Therefore those who know martial arts do not wander when

    they move, and do not become exhausted when they rise up.

    So it is said that when you know yourself and others,

    victory is not in danger; when you know sky and earth,

    victory is inexhaustible.

    Chapter 11: Nine Grounds

    According to the rule of military operations, there are

    nine kinds of grounds. Where local interests fight among

    themselves on their own territory, this is called a ground

    of dissolution.

    When you enter others' land but not deeply this is called

    light ground.

    Land that would be advantageous to you if you got it and to

    opponents if they got it is called ground of contention.

    Land where you and others can come and go is called a

    trafficked ground.

    Land that is surrounded on three sides by competitors and

    would give the first to get it access to all the people on

    the continent is called intersecting ground.

    When you enter deeply into others' land, past many cities

    and towns, this is called heavy ground.

    When you traverse mountain forests, steep defiles, marshes,

    or any route difficult to travel, this is called bad

    ground.

    When the way in is narrow and the way out is circuitous, so

    a small enemy force can strike you, even though your

    ground.

    When you will survive if you fight quickly and perish if

    you do not, this is called dying ground.

    So let there be not battle on a ground of dissolution, let

    there be no stopping on light ground, let there be no

    attack on a ground of contention, let there be no cutting

    off of trafficked ground. On intersecting ground form

    communications, on heavy ground plunder, on bad ground keep

    going, on surrounded ground make plans, on dying ground

    fight.

    Those who are called the good militarists of old could make

    opponents lose contact between front and back lines, lose

    reliability between large and small groups, lose mutual

    concern for the welfare of the different social classes

    among them, lose mutual accommodation between the rulers

    and the ruled, lose enlistments among the soldiers, lose

    coherence within the armies. They went into action when it

    was advantageous, stopped when it was not.

    It may be asked, when a large, well-organized opponent is

    about to come to you, how do you deal with it? The answer

    is that you first take away what they like, and then they

    will listen to you.

    The condition of a military force is that its essential

    factor is speed, taking advantage of others' failure to

    catch up, going by routes they do not expect, attacking

    where they are not on guard.

    In general, the pattern of invasion is that invaders become

    more intense the farther they enter alien territory, to the

    point where the native rulership cannot overcome them.

    Glean from rich fields, and the armies will have enough to

    eat. Take care of your health and avoid stress, consolidate

    your energy and build up your strength. maneuver your

    troops and assess strategies so as to be unfathomable.

    Put them in a spot where they have no place to go, and they

    will die before fleeing. If they are to die there, what can

    they not do? Warriors exert their full strength. When

    warriors are in great danger, then they have no fear. When

    there is nowhere to go they are firm, when they are deeply

    involved they stick to it. If they have no choice, they

    will fight.

    For this reason the soldiers are alert without being

    drilled, enlist without being drafted, are friendly without

    treaties, are trustworthy without commands.

    Prohibit omens to get rid of doubt, and soldiers will never

    leave you. If your soldiers have no extra goods, it is not

    that they dislike material goods. If they have no more

    life, it is not that they do not want to live long. On the

    day the order to march goes out, the soldiers weep.

    So a skillful military operation should be like a swift

    snake that counters with its tail when someone strikes at

    its head, counters with its head when someone strikes at

    its tail, and counters with both head and tail when someone

    strikes at its middle.

    The question may be asked, can a military force be made to

    be like this swift snake? The answer is that i can. Even

    people who dislike each other, if in the same boat, will

    help each other out in trouble.

    Therefore, tethered horses and buried wheels are not

    sufficently reliable.

    To even out bravery and make it uniform is the Tao of

    organization. To be successful with both the hard and soft

    is based on the pattern of the ground.

    Therefore those skilled in military operations achieve

    cooperation in a group so that directing the group is like

    directing a single individual with no other choice.

    The business of the general is quiet and secret, fair and

    orderly.

    He can keep the soldiers unaware, make them ignorant.

    He changes his actions and revises his plans, so that

    people will not recognize them. He changes his abode and

    goes by a circuitous route, so that people cannot

    anticipate him.

    When a leader establishes a goal with the troops, he is

    like one who climbs up to a high place and then tosses away

    the ladder. When a leader enters deeply into enemy

    territory with the troops, eh brings out their potential.

    He has them burn the boats and destroy the pots, drives

    them like sheep, none knowing where they are going.

    To assemble armies and put them into dangerous situations

    is the business of generals. Adaptations to different

    grounds, advantages of contraction and expansion, patterns

    of human feelings and conditions -- these must be

    examined.

    Generally, the way it is with invaders is that they unite

    when deep in enemy territory but are prone to dissolve

    while on the fringes. When you leave your country and cross

    the border on a military operation, that is isolated

    ground. When it is accessible from all directions, it is

    trafficked ground. When penetration is deep, that is heavy

    ground. When penetration is shallow, that is light ground.

    When your back is to an impassable fastness and before you

    are narrow straits, that is surrounded ground. When there

    is nowhere to go, that is deadly ground.

    So on a ground of dissolution, I would unify the minds of

    the troops. On light ground, I would have them keep in

    touch. On a ground of contention, I would have them follow

    up quickly. On an intersecting ground, I would be careful

    about defense. On a trafficked ground, I would make

    alliances firm. On heavy ground, I would ensure continuous

    supplies. On bad ground, I would urge them onward. On

    surrounded ground, I would close up the gaps. On deadly

    ground, I would indicate to them there is no surviving.

    So the psychology of soldiers is to resist when surrounded,

    fight when it cannot be avoided, and obey in extremes.

    Therefore those who do not know the plans of competitors

    cannot prepare alliances. Those who do not know the lay of

    the land cannot maneuver their forces. Those who do not

    use local guides cannot take advantage of the ground. The

    military of an effective rulership must know all these

    things.

    When the military of an effective rulership attacks a large

    country, the people cannot unite. When its power overwhelms

    opponents, alliances cannot come together.

    Therefore if you do not compete for alliances anywhere, do

    not foster authority anywhere, but just extend your

    personal influence, threatening opponents, this makes town

    and country vulnerable.

    Give out rewards that are not in the rules, give out

    directives that are not in the code.

    Employ the entire armed forces like employing a single

    person. Employ them with actual tasks, do not talk to them.

    Motivate them with benefits, do not tell them about harm.

    Confront them with annihilation, and they will then

    survive; plunge them into a deadly situation, and they will

    then live. When people fall into danger, they are then able

    to strive for victory.

    So the task of a military operation is to accord

    deceptively with the intentions of the enemy. If you

    concentrate totally on the enemy, you can kill its military

    leadership a thousand miles away. This is skillful

    accomplishment of the task.

    So on the day war is declared, borders are closed,

    passports are torn up, and emissaries are not let through.

    Matters are dealt with strictly at headquarters.

    When opponents present openings, you should penetrate them

    immediately. Get to what they want first, subtly anticipate

    them. Maintain discipline and adapt to the enemy in order

    ot determine the outcome of the war. Thus, at first you are

    like a maiden, so the enemy opens his door; then you are

    like a rabbit on the loose, so the enemy cannot keep you

    out.

    Chapter 12: Fire Attack

    There are five kinds of fire attack: burning people,

    burning supplies, burning equipment, burning storehouses,

    and burning weapons.

    The use of fire must have a basis, and requires certain

    tools. There are appropriate times for setting fires,

    namely when the weather is dry and windy.

    Generally, in fire attack it is imperative to follow up on

    the crises caused by the fires. When fire is set inside an

    enemy camp, then respond quickly from outside. If the

    soldiers are calm when fire breaks out, wait -- do not

    attack. When the fire reaches the height of its power,

    follow up if possible, hold back if not.

    When fire can be set out in the open, do not wait until it

    can be set inside a camp -- set it when the time is right.

    When fire is set upwind, do not attack downwind.

    If it is windy during the day, the wind will stop at

    night.

    Armies must know there are adaptations of the five kinds of

    fire attack, and adhere to them scientifically.

    So the use of fire to help an attack means clarity, the use

    of water to help at attack means strength. Water can cut

    off, but cannot plunder.

    To win in battle or make a successful siege without

    rewarding the meritorious is unlucky and earns the name of

    stinginess. Therefore it is said that an enlightened

    government considers this, an good military leadership

    rewards merit. They do not mobilize when there is no

    advantage, do not act when there is nothing to gain, do not

    fight when there is no danger.

    A government should not mobilize an army out of anger,

    military leaders should not provoke war out of wrath. Act

    when it is beneficial, desist if it is not. Anger can

    revert to joy, wrath can revert to delight, but a nation

    destroyed cannot be restored to existence, and the dead

    cannot be restored to life. Therefore an enlightened

    government is careful about this, a good military

    leadership is alert to this. This is the way to secure a

    nation and keep the armed forces whole.

    Chapter 13: On The Use Of Spies

    A major military operation is a severe drain on the nation,

    and may be kept up for years in the struggle for one day's

    victory. So to fail to know the conditions of opponents

    because of reluctance to give rewards for intelligence is

    extremely inhumane, uncharacteristic of a true military

    leader, uncharacteristic of an assistant of the government,

    uncharacteristic of a victorious chief. So what enables an

    intelligent government and a wise military leadership to

    overcome others and achieve extraordinary accomplishments

    is foreknowledge.

    Foreknowledge cannot be gotten from ghosts and spirits,

    cannot be had by analogy, cannot be found out by

    calculation. It must be obtained from people, people who

    know the conditions of the enemy.

    There are five kinds of spy: The local spy, the inside spy,

    the reverse spy, the dead spy, and the living spy. When the

    five kinds of spies are all active, no one knows their

    routes - this is called organizational genius, and is

    valuable to the leadership.

    Local spies are hired from among the people of a locality.

    Inside spies are hired from among enemy officials. Reverse

    spies are hired from among enemy spies. Dead spies transmit

    false intelligence to enemy spies. Living spies come back

    to report.

    Therefore no one in the armed forces is treated as

    familiarly as are spies, no one is given rewards as rich as

    those given to spies, and no matter is more secret than

    espionage.

    One cannot use spies without sagacity and knowledge, one

    cannot use spies without humanity and justice, one cannot

    get the truth from spies without subtlety. This is a very

    delicate matter indeed. Spies are useful everywhere.

    If an item of intelligence is heard before a spy reports

    it, then both the spy and the one who told about it die.

    Whenever you want to attack an army, besiege a city, or

    kill a person, first you must know the identities of their

    defending generals, their associates, their visitors, their

    gatekeepers, and their chamberlains, so you have your spies

    find out.

    You must seek out enemy agents who have come to spy on you,

    bribe them and induce them to stay with you, so you can use

    them as reverse spies. By intelligence thus obtained, you

    can find local spies and inside spies to employ. By

    intelligence thus obtained, you can cause the

    misinformation of dead spies to be conveyed to the enemy.

    By intelligence thus obtained, you can get living spies to

    work as planned.

    It is essential for a leader to know about the five kinds

    of espionage, and this knowledge depends on reverse spies,

    so reverse spies must be treated well.

    So only a brilliant ruler or a wise general who can use the

    highly intelligent for espionage is sure of great success.

    This is essential for military operations, and the armies

    depend on this in their actions.

    中文版http://www.4kidsite.com/story/literal/chinese/sunz...

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  • 1 0 年前

    "Sun Zi Bingfa" counts first

    The beginning counts

    The grandson said that, The soldier, important matter of the

    country, dies lives the place, road of the life or death, cannot not

    observe.

    Therefore after it by five, the school counts, but rope its sentiment:

    As soon as says that, two says the day, three says, four will say,

    five will say the law

    . Makes the people to on agreement also, may with it death, be

    possible to live with it, the people are not crafty. The day, the

    masculine and feminine elements, is cold

    Hot weather, when system. High under, far and near, the danger

    is easy, Guang Hsia, dies lives. The wisdom, the letter, the kernel,

    will be brave

    Is strict. The law, Qu Chih, the major road, the host uses.

    Every this five, none who does not heard that, knows the victory, does

    not know it

    Extremely. Therefore the school counts, but rope its sentiment.

    Said: The host 孰 is correct? 孰 having energy? World 孰? Law 孰

    Ok? The soldier audiences 孰 are strong? The soldiers 孰

    practice? The award and punishment 孰 is bright? I to this know the

    victory and defeat.

    Will listen to me to count, with must win, remains ﹔ Will not listen

    to me to count, with will have to defeat, goes to it.

    Counts the advantage to listen, is for it potential, assists besides.

    The potential, but makes the power because of the advantage.

    Soldier, 詭道. Therefore can show cannot, with shows does not use,

    nearly shows far, far shows near. Advantage

    But tempts it, randomly takes it, solid prepares it, strong

    evades it, anger but 撓 it, inferior and arrogant it, is lost works

    it, own

    But leaves it, catches off guard, takes by surprise. Victory

    of the this military commander, cannot first pass on.

    The husband has not fought but 廟算 the victor, must calculate many

    also ﹔ Has not fought but 廟算 extremely, must calculate few.

    Calculates the victory, little does not calculate

    Victory, much less incalculably! I by this view it, the

    victory and defeat see.

    "Sun Zi Bingfa" battles second

    Operational

    The grandson said that, Every resorts to arms the law, spreads

    the vehicle thousand four-horse teams, changes the vehicle 千乘,

    brings the armor ten ten thousand, great distance 饋糧, then inside

    and outside expense

    Using of the guest, 膠漆 the material, presenting of the

    vehicle armor, the daily expense daughter, then ten ten thousand

    teachers lift. It with fights also expensively

    Victory, long time then the poor soldiers frustrate sharply,

    attacks the city then the strength bends, long storm Shi Tsekuo uses

    the insufficiency. The husband poor soldiers frustrate sharply, Qu

    Litan goods,

    Then feudal lord while its shortcoming, although has the wise,

    cannot be friendly after that. Therefore soldier Wen Chosu, has not

    seen the skillful long time. Husband

    The soldier long time but the country advantages, have not

    had. Therefore does not know resorts to arms the evil, then cannot

    know resorts to arms the advantage.

    Friendly resorting to arms, service no longer nationality, grain not

    three years ﹔ Uses to the country, because of grain to enemy,

    therefore the armed force food may the foot.

    The country poor Yu shihche far loses, far loses then common people

    poor. Near shi Chekuei sells, expensively sells then the common people

    use up, the wealth uses up is anxious to the earthen mound

    Service. The strength bends, the wealth 殫, in area south of

    Yellow River empty to family. Expense of the common people, ten goes

    its seven ﹔ Expense of the government: The broken armed force the

    horse,

    Armor Zhou Shihnu, the halberd shield shades the scull, the

    earthen mound cow large cart, ten goes its six.

    Therefore 智將 service food Yu Ti. A food enemy clock, when my 20

    clocks ﹔ ○ a pole stone, when my 20 stones.

    Therefore killing the enemy, anger also ﹔ Takes advantage of the

    enemy, goods. Therefore the vehicle war, results in the vehicle ten to

    ride already on, enjoys it first, but

    The flags, Che Tsaer rides it, dies friendly raises it, is

    says the victory enemy to benefit strongly.

    Therefore soldier expensive victory, inexpensive long time.

    Old friend soldier, department of life people, host of the national

    safety.

    "Sun Zi Bingfa" the stratagem attacks third

    The stratagem attacks

    The grandson said that, Every resorts to arms the law, the

    nation for on, the broken country is next ﹔ The entire armed forces

    for on, the broken armed force are next ﹔ The entire travel is on,

    The broken travel is next ﹔ All dies for on, broken dies is

    next ﹔ The entire five for on, the broken five is next. Therefore is

    ever-victorious, non- friendly it

    Friendly also ﹔ Does not fight accuses falsely the soldier,

    friendly friendliness.

    Therefore on the soldier reveals a plot, next cuts down the junction,

    next cuts down the soldier, its 下攻 city. Attacks law of the city

    for to have already. Repairs the scull ○ ○,

    After has the instrument, in March but becomes, is apart from

    ○, after also in March but already. Extremely its indignation, but

    蟻附 it, kills the gentleman for three minute

    One, but the city pullers, this does not attack the disaster.

    Therefore friendly resorting to arms, accuses falsely the soldier

    antiwar but. Pulls out city of the person but

    Must attacks also, country of the broken person but the non-

    long time also, must by the entire struggle to the world, therefore

    soldier not, but benefits may entire, this stratagem attacks it

    Law.

    Therefore resorts to arms the law, ten pieces encircle it, five pieces

    attack it, doubles then 分之, the enemy can fight it, are few can

    run away it, not if

    Then can evade it. Therefore the young enemy is firm, the

    archenemy seizes.

    Husband, country auxiliary. Auxiliary Zhou Tsekuo must be strong, the

    auxiliary crack then the country must be weak.

    Therefore Mr. therefore trouble Yu chunche three: Did not know the

    armed force may not then say it to enter, did not know the armed force

    may not draw back says it

    Draws back, is for the nose rope armed force ﹔ Does not know

    matter of the three services, but politics of the same three services,

    then sergeant is puzzled ﹔ Does not know power of the three

    services,

    But being appointed of the same three services, then sergeant

    doubts. The three services already are puzzled also doubt, then the

    feudal lord difficultly to, is says the chaotic armed force to direct

    the victory.

    The old friend victory has five: The knowledge may fight with may not

    the fighting victory, knows the audiences widowed customer to win,

    about with wanting victory, by Yu

    Treats the unexpectedness victory, will be able but Mr. not

    the imperial victory. This five, the knowledge wins the road.

    Therefore said that, Knows oneself and the other side, hundred fights

    does not present ﹔ Does not know other but the friend, a win defeat

    ﹔ Does not know the other not friend, each war must

    Presents.

    "Sun Zi Bingfa" armed force shape fourth

    Armed force shape

    The grandson said that, Clever in fighting past, first for may

    not win, waits on the enemy to be possible to win. Cannot win in the

    oneself, may win in the enemy. Therefore

    Clever in fighting, can for not be possible to win, cannot

    cause the enemy to have to be possible to win. Therefore said that,

    The victory may know, but may not be. May not the victor

    Defends also ﹔ But the victor, attacks. The rules are

    insufficient, attack have -odd. Friendly defender, Tibet under nine

    places ﹔ Friendly attacking

    Moves above nine days. Therefore can protect oneself but the

    total victory.

    Sees exceeds the numerous people to know, non- friendly friendliness

    also ﹔ Defeats but the world to say friendly, non- friendly

    friendliness. Therefore lifts the fall

    For the multi- strength, does not see the livelihood is not

    the clear vision, heard the thunder is not the clever ear. Ancient

    so-called clever in fighting, wins to the easy victor

    . Therefore clever in fighting victory also, non- wisdom name,

    not brave merit. Therefore it defeats not too. Not too, its handles

    must win, victory

    Already defeated. Therefore clever in fighting, stands to the

    invincible position, but does not lose defeat the enemy. Therefore

    after the victory soldier first wins but seeks battle

    After The defeated and dispersed soldiers first fight but

    strive for victory. Friendly resorting to arms, cultivates oneself

    according to religious doctrine to guarantee the law, therefore can

    politics of for the victory or defeat.

    Military tactics: As soon as says, two says the quantity, three says

    the number, four says stated, five says the victory. Lives, a fresh

    quantity, measures the fresh number,

    The number lives stated that, calls the fresh victory.

    Therefore victory soldier if to the yi calls 銖, the defeated and

    dispersed soldiers if to 銖 call the yi.

    War of people victor also, if definitely ponding to thousand 仞

    brooks, shape.

    "Sun Zi Bingfa" 兵勢 fifth

    兵勢

    The grandson said that, Every governs the audiences

    參考資料: 孩子讀英文版兵法
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