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匿名使用者 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前



3 個解答

  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答  Pai li pu t'ung fong,A hundred miles away customs are not the same. 事忙先上賬免得後思量Shih mang hsien shang chang, mien teh hou sy liang.Before you are too busy write your account, to avoid cavillations afterwards. 狡兔有三窟  Chiao t’u you san k’u The cunning hare has three holes. Many proverbs take an interrogative form:你這不是雞蛋裡找骨頭嗎  Ni che pu shih chi tan li chao ku-t’ou ma?You stupid, are not looking for a bone inside an egg? 誰家門口能掛無事的牌呢 Shei chia men-k’ou neng kua ‘wu shih te’ p’ai ne?At the door of which home can the inscription be hung: ‘There are no problems here’? More rarely the proverbs take the form of exclamationation. For instance: 天有多少星  地有多少釘 Tien you tuo‑shao hsing! Ti you tuo‑shao ring!There are so many stars in the sky! But so many mils in the ground! The monosyllabic structure of the Chinese language, which has a very short number of phonetically düfferent syllables‑some 425 in the Mandarin dialect‑, is the basis for frequent onomatopoeias and paronomasias, whose attractive effects coure from a mere reduplication of the characters:氣氣惱惱生了病  嘻嘻哈哈活了命 Ch'i‑ch i nao‑nao sheng liao ping, hsi‑hsi ha ha huo liao ming. To boil with indignation is a cause of illness, but loud laughter reanimates your life. 打點打點 變苦為甜 Ta tien, ta tien, pien k'u wei tien.Give blows, give blows, and hardship becomes sweetness. 腐木不可為柱  卑人不可為主 Fu mu pu k'o wei chu, pei ren pu k'o wei chu.The rotten log cannot be used as a beam; a base man cannot become a leader. In this proverb the syntagma pu k'o wei is repeated, introducing the homophonous characters chu (beam) and chu (lord). The Chinese proverbs adopt from tune to tune fixed formulas, similar to those we find, in Hebrew and Spanish proverbs. With their terms in juxtaposition or parallelism, the thought is completed and the memory keeps the meaning better. a) Ning... , pu... I prefer... , rather than...寧要貧窮由自己不要富貴由他人 Ning yao p'in‑ch'iung you tzy‑chi, pu yao fu‑kwei you t'a‑ren.I prefer to be poor through my own fault, than become rich through other people's doings. b) Pu p'a..., chih p'a... Do not fear..., only fear... 不怕慢,只怕站 不怕站,只怕轉Pu p'a man, chih p'a chan; pu p'a chan, chih p'a chuan. Do not fear to go slowly, but to stop; do not fear to stop, but to go back. c) Yüe... , yüe... The more... , the more... (correlative ideas). 瞎子幫忙,越幫越忙  Hsia‑tty pang mang, yüe pang yüe mang.If a blind man helps in a hurry, the more he helps the greater is the pressure. d) You chien nan mai.         It is difficult to buy with money (a paremiological way of expressing impossibility).有錢難買心頭願  有錢難買六月雪  有錢難買少年時You chien nan mai Tain‑t'ou yüan, you chien nan mai Ziu yüe hsüe, you chien nan mai shao‑nien shih. It is difftcult to buy with money the desires of a heart, neither can snow in lune be bought, nor the tune of youth. e) Pu ru. It is not like... , it is less worth that.生意不如手藝  手藝不如種地  Sheng‑i pu ru shou‑i; shou‑i pu ru chung ti.Trade is léss worthy than handicraft, handicraft is less worthy that farming. II. LITERARY FORMS. An application of the western literary categories to the Chinese proverbs is a great help to classify them and understand their beauty. First of all, we mark the successive enumerations, so frequent also in the biblical language, as in this passage from the Book of Proverbs: "Three things are too wonderful for me, yes, four I cannot understand: the way of an eagle in the air, the way of a serpent upon a rock, the way of a skip on the high seas, and the way of a man with a maid" (30,18‑19). A similar Chinese enumeration is this:世上有四大難聽:磨新鍋,發大鋸 ,驢叫喚,寡婦哭Shih shang you sy ta nan t'ing: mo shin kuo, fa ta chü,lü chiao‑huan, kua fu k'u.In the world there are four things most harsh to hear: the polishing of a new cauldron, the driving of a big saw, the braying of an ass, and the weeping of a widow. The Chinese like the repetition or anaphora in the phrasing of a proverb, repeating some characters in order to stress an antithesis or contrast of meaning. 施門難開,施門難閉  Shih men nan k'ai, shih men nan pi.The door of beneficence is very diflïcult to open, as it is very difficult to close. 有飯送給饑人,有話送給知人 You fan sung kei chi ren, you hua sung kei chih ren.If you have rice, give it to the hungry man; if you have words, give them to the wise man. 入國問禁,入鄉問俗,入門問諱 Ru kuo wen chia, ru hsiang wen su, ru men wen wei.On entering a country, know what is forbidden, on entering a village, know its customs, on entering a house, know its taboos. Chiasmus is very frequently found in Chinese proverbs. It consists in the ingenious inversion in the second phrase of characters of the first, in order to stress a strong contrast of ideas. For instance:好話不背人,背人不好話 Hao hua pu pei ren; pei ren pu hao hua.Honest words are not spoken behind other people's back; who speaks behind other people's back, has not honest words. 快是個慢,慢是個快 K'wai shih ke man, man shih ke k'wai.To be in a hurry is to go slow, but to go slow ïs to hurry. This is a clever paradox, which finds a counterpart in the English proverb: "A hasty man drinks his tea with his fork", and in the Spanish `refrân': "Visteme despacio, que voy aprisa," dress me slowly, because I am in a hurry. We find also truisms, literary expressions of self‑evident, common‑sense knowledge. 竹籃打水一場空Chu lan ta shuei, i ch'ang k'ung.To draw water with a bomboo basket is useless work. 紙裏包不住火Chili li pao pu chu huo.You cannot wrap fire up in a piece of paper. The vivacity of the Chinese mind sparks in some hyperbolical proverbs, like the following:心急馬不快 Hsin chi ma pu k'wai.When the heart is pressed, the horses are not swift.煮熟的鴨子,又飛了 Chu reh te ya‑CZy, you fei liao.The cooked and roasted duck, lias fiown again. Comparison is a literary device very much used by the Oriental peoples, since analogies with common things declare an idea vigorously. The simile between simple terms connected by conjunctions such as sy, ru, abounds in Chinese paremiology. For instance:光陰似箭 ,日月如梭Kwang yin sy chien, ry yüe ru suo.Time is like an arrow, days and months run as weaver's shuttle. 人心似鐵,官法如爐Ren hsin sy t'ie kwan fa ru lu. If man's heart is like iron, the law of the land is as a furnace. 口說如風過K'ou shuo ru fong kuo. The words of the mouth are like a wind which passes away. This is similar to the English: "Words and feathers the wind carries away", and to the Spanish: "Palabras y plumas, el viento las tumba", Words and feathers the wind tumbles down. Another well‑known analDgy: 人死如燈滅 Ren sy ru Zeng mie.Man dies as a candie goes out. There is a parallelism of implicit comparison, often used by the anonymous Chinese proverbs. Two complete sentences are placed together without comparative conjunctions. The parallelism is reinforced by repeating in the second sentence some characters of the first. One of the sentences expresses a thought, the other is a sensorial observation which helps to understand the thought better. We have here a Chinese way of apprehending immaterial ideas through the data collected by our senses. Ad invisibilia per visibilia, as the Roman philosophers would say. A few examples will explain things better: 善惡不同途,冰炭不同爐Shan ngö pu t'ung t'u, ping t'an pu t'ung lu.Good and evil do not take the saure road; ice and coal do not meet in the saure stove. 明人不用細講,好鼓不用重鎚Ming ren pu yung hsi chiang; hao ku pu yung chung ch'uei. A clever man does not need elaborate explanations; the good drum does not need a heavy hammer. 人無千日好,花無千日紅Ren wu ch'ien ry han; hua wu ch'ien ry hung.Men do not have a thousand good days; flowers are not fresh for a thousand days.

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  • Lv 6
    1 0 年前

    一朝被蛇咬,十年怕草繩Once bitten, twice shy.

    一言既出,駟馬難追A word spoken is past recalling.

    一見鍾情to fall in love at first sight

    一箭雙鵰Kill two birds with one stone.

    一寸光陰一寸金Time is money.

    一失足成千古恨The error committed on impulse may turn out to be the sorrow of a whole life.

    一將功名萬古枯What millions died that Caesar might be great.

    一年之計在於春,一日之計在於晨Plan your year in spring and your day at dawn.

    一人難稱百人意You cannot please everyone.

    一氣呵成Never make two bites of a cherry.

    九死一生to have a hair-breadth escape

    人生如夢Life is but a dream.

    人生自古誰無死Death comes to all men.

    人生百歲古來稀It is seldom that a man lives to be a hundred years old.

    人定勝天Man can conquer nature.

    人不可貌相Appearances are often deceptive./ Never judge a look by its cover.

    十年風水輪流轉Every dog has its day.

    三思而後行Look before you leap.

    三句不離本行to talk shop

    三個臭皮匠勝過一個諸葛亮Two heads are better than one.

    千鈞一髮to hang by a hair thread

    大智若愚He who canot play the fool is not a wise man.

    大器晚成Rome was not built in a day.

    山窮水盡at the end of one's resources

    山中無老虎,猴子稱大王Among the blind the one-eyed is king./When the cat's away, the mice will pay.

    小題大做Make a mountain out of a molehill.

    小洞不補,大來吃苦A stitch in time saves nine.

    小不忍則亂大謀Patience is a virtue.

    工欲善其事,必先利其器You cannot make bricks without straw.

    不要厚此薄彼Don't make fish of one and flesh of another.

    不畏艱難Take the bull by the horns.

    不要不自量力Don't put a quarter into a pint pot.

    己所不欲勿施於人Do unto others as you would be done.

    仁者無敵The benevolent have no enemy.

    工欲善其事必先利器You cannot make bricks without straw.

    亡羊補牢Better late than never./ It's never too late to mend.

    不告而別to take French leave

    不要不自量力Don't put a quarter into a pint pot.

    不要厚此薄彼Don't make fish of one and flesh of another.

    不畏艱難Take the bull by the horns.

    不戰而屈人之兵The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.

    不入虎穴焉得虎子How can one obtain tiger-cubs without entering the tiger's lair.

    不經一事,不長一智Experience is the mother of wisdom.

    少年老成to have an old head on young shoulders

    天無絕人之路God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.

    天下烏鴉一般黑Crows are black all over the world.

    天無絕人之路God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb./ When one door shuts another opens.

    天助自助者Heaven helps those who help themselves.

    天有不測風雲,人有旦夕禍福It is the unexpected that always happens.

    毛遂自薦to recommend one's own person

    心正不怕雷打A good conscience is a soft pillow.

    化干戈為玉帛Bury the tomahwak(hatchet).

    仁者無敵The benevolent have no enemy.

    今日事今日畢Never put off till tomorrow what may be done today.

    文勝於武The pen is mightier than the sword.

    以身作則to practice what one practices

    以毒攻毒to set a thief to catch a thief

    以怨報德to bite the hand that feeds one

    以逸待勞To wait at ease till the enemy is exhausted.

    以寡敵眾to fight against longer odds

    以德報怨to render good for evil

    以其人之道還治其人之身Set a thief to catch a thief.

    以子之矛,攻子之盾to turn a person's battery against himself

    四大皆空All is vanity.

    四海之內皆兄弟All are brothers within the four seas.

    未雨綢繆to save against a rainy day

    目不識丁not know A from B

    失敗為成功之母Failure is the mother of success.

    失之毫釐,差之千里A miss is as good as a mile.

    只要功夫深,鐵杵磨成針Little strokes fell great oaks.

    毛遂自薦to recommend one's own person

    打落水狗to hit a person when he's down

    打鐵趁熱Strike while the iron is hot.

    犯錯是人之常情,寬恕是超凡的To err is human; to forgive divine.

    只要功夫深,鐵杵磨成針Little strokes fell great oaks.

    任勞任怨to bear hardship without complaint

    自作自受As you make your bed so you must lie on it.

    自討苦吃to make a rod for one's own back

    自力更生to shift for oneself

    自掃門前雪After us the deluge.

    回頭浪子the return of a prodigal

    先下手為強Offence is the best defence.

    同甘共苦to share one's joys and sorrows

    因地制宜act according to circumstances

    有勇無謀more brave than wise

    有備無患Good watch prevents misfortune.

    有志者事竟成Where there is a will, there is a way.

    有錢能使鬼推磨Money makes the world go around. /Money talks.

    江山易改本性難移The child is father of the man.

    百無一失Not a single miss in a hundred times.

    百聞不如一見To see is to believe. (Seeing is believing.)

    吃得苦中苦,方為人上人If you wish to be the best man, you must be prepared to suffer the bitterest of the bitter.

    每人一生中皆有得意之日Every dog has his day.

    色是假,美是空Charm is deceitful, and beauty empty.

    吉人自有天相The good are protected by Heaven. / All's wel that ends well.

    如人飲水冷暖自知Only the wearer knows where the shoes pain.

    吃得苦中苦,方為人上人No gain without pain.

    弄巧成拙Overreach oneself; overshoot oneself; overshoot the mark

    忍無可忍to be at the end of one's patience

    忍一時之氣免百日之憂patience for a moment; comfort for many years

    忘恩負義to kick down the ladder

    走馬看花a flying visit

    防患於未然to nip a thing in the bud

    佛要金裝,人要衣裝Fine feathers make fine birds.

    兵精不必多Too many cooks spoil the broth.

    身在福中不知福The worth of a thing is best known by the want of it.

    你敬我一尺,我回你一丈You scratch my back, and I will sratch yours.

    別狗咬呂洞賓,不識好人心Don't bite the hand that feeds you.

    志在千里Hitch your wagon to a star.

    奇裝異服a fantastic garb

    忠言逆耳Honest advice is unpleasant to the ear

    明辨是非to distinguish right from wrong

    知足常樂Happy is he who is content

    知足者富He who feels contented is rich

    知人知面不知心It's easy to know men's faces, but not their hearts.

    知己知彼百戰百勝Know your enemy and know yourself.

    空中樓閣castles in the air

    金科玉律the gold rule

    奇裝異服a fantastic garb

    明辨事非to distinguish right fromwrong

    雨後春筍like bamboo shoots after a spring shower

    雨過天青After a storm comes a calm.

    秀才不出門能知天下事A scholor does not step outside his gate, yet he knows the happenings under the sun.

    事實勝於雄辯Facts are most convincing.

    來得容易去得快Easy come, easy go.

    金玉其外敗絮其中All that glitters is not gold.

    兔子不吃窩邊草The fox preys farthest from his hole.

    若要人不知除非己莫為If you would not be known to do anything, never do it.

    沒有笑臉不出門A man without a smiling face must not open a shop.

    虎父無虎子Like father, like son.

    往者不可諫,來者猶可追A mill cannot grind with the water that is past.

    姻緣天註定Marriages are made in heaven.

    逆來順受to make the best of a bad bargain

    流芳百世a niche in the temple of fame

    為虎作倀to act as guide to a tiger

    孤注一擲to put all one's egg in one basket

    勇者不懼A brave man will not shrink from dangers.

    洗心革面to turn over a new leaf

    美中不足a fly in the ointment

    背道而馳to run counter

    走湯蹈火to go through fire and water

    風燭殘年to have one foot in the grave

    風聲鶴唳,草木皆兵to apprehend danger in every sound

    活到老學到老It's never too late to learn./ Live and learn.

    前事不忘後事之師Remember the past and it will guide your future.

    星星之火可以燎原A single spark can start a prairie fire.

    待人寬容如待己Live and let live.

    按部就班Learn to walk before you run.

    病從口入禍從口出Illness comes in by mouth and comes out by it.

    笑裏藏刀a smile to hide one's hate

    留得青山在,不怕沒柴燒Where there's life there's hope

    海底撈月to fish in the air

    海底撈針to look for a needle in a bundle of hay

    差之毫釐失之千里A miss is as good as a mile

    既往不咎Let the dead bury their dead.

    殺身成仁to sacrifice one's life to preserve one's virtue complete

    殺雞焉用牛刀Take not a musket to kill a butterfly

    飢不擇食A good appetite is a good sauce.

    害群之馬black sheep

    家醜不可外揚Don't wash your dirty linen in public.

    恩威並濟alternate weakness with severity

    旁觀者清The outside sees the best of the game.

    時運不濟to have a bad time

    殊途同歸All roads lead to Rome.

    眾志成城/團結就是力量Union is strenth.

    疾風知勁草Adversity reveals genius.

    旁觀者清,當局者迷Lookers-on see most of the game.

    莫在太歲頭上動土Let sleeping dogs lie.

    得意忘形to leap out of one's skin

    捷足先登The early bird catches the worm.

    欲速則不達Haste makes waste

    欲速則不達More haste, less speed.

    混水摸魚to fish in troubled waters

    貪小失大penny-wise and poundfoolish

    習慣成自然once a use forever a custom

    掛羊頭賣狗肉cry up wine and sell vinegar

    貧無立錐之地as poor as a church mouse

    雪中送炭真君子/患難見真情A friend in need is a friend indeed.

    異想天開to give loose to one's fancy

    集思廣義Two heads are better than one.

    得過且過to live from hand to mouth

    情人眼裏出西施Love is blind.

    冤家宜解不宜結Better remove enmity than contract it.

    眼不見為淨Out of sight, out of mind.

    勝不驕敗不餒to be not elated by success nor disturbed by failure

    富貴在天Riches and honors come from heaven.

    智者不惑A wise man is free from perplexities.

    無風不起浪There is no smoke without fire. (Where there is smoke, there is fire.)

    畫蛇添足to paint the lily

    趁火打劫to fish in troubled waters

    量入為出to cut one's coat according to one's cloth/ make both ends meet

    陽奉陰違ostensible obedience

    跑了和尚跑不了廟The monk may run away, but the temple can't run with him.

    萬物之靈the lords of creation

    萬事開頭難Everything is difficult at the start

    萬無一失not a single miss in a thousand times.

    落井下石to hit a person when he's down

    隔牆有耳Pitchers have ears; walls have ears.

    開夜車Burn the midnight oil.

    損人利己to enrich oneself at others expense

    置之死地而後生Put the troops in death ground and they will live.

    道高一尺魔高一丈While the priest climbs a foot, the devil climbs ten.

    預防勝於治療Prevention is better than cure.

    新官上任三把火New brooms sweep clean.

    塞翁失馬焉知非福Misfortune might be a blessing in disguise.

    路遙知馬力日久見人心A distant journey tests the strength of a horse and a long task proves the character of a man.

    滄海一栗a drop in the bucket

    蓋棺論定Judge none blessed before his death.

    歲月不饒人Time and tide wait for no man.

    經驗即良師Experience is the teacher.

    壽終正寢to die a natural death (to die in one's bed)

    寡不擊眾There is no contending against odds.

    對牛彈琴to cast pearls before swine

    禍不單行Misfortunes never come single.

    飽食終日無所事事to eat the bread of idleness

    慷他人之慨to be free with other's money

    遠親不如近鄰Distant kinsmen mean less than close neighbors. / A near neighbor is better than a distant cousin.

    種瓜得瓜種豆得豆You must reap what you have sown. / As you sow, so shall you reap.

    樂極生悲After joy comes sadness.

    說曹操到曹操就到Talk of the devil and the devil comes.

    團結就是力量Union is strength.

    需要為發明之母Necessity is the mother of invention.

    滿招損,謙受益Haughtiness invites ruin; humility receives benefits.

    惡有惡報He that does evil shall find evil.

    惡事傳千里Bad news travels quickly.

    熟能生巧Practice makes perfect.

    緩兵之計a fabian policy

    緣木求魚to get water from a flint

    適者生存the survival of the fittest

    窮寇莫追A cornered animal is a dangerous foe.

    積少成多Every little makes a mickle.

    積少成多Every little helps.

    錢可通神Money can move even the gods.

    謀事在人成事在天Man proposes and God disposes.

    學問無捷徑There is no royal road/shortcut to learning.

    機不可失Opportunity seldo knocks twice.

    優勝劣敗The weakest goes to the wall.

    聲東擊西to look one way and row another

    膾炙人口in everyone's mouth

    螳臂擋車to kick against the pricks

    鞠躬盡瘁to give the last measure of devotion

    聰明反被聰明誤to suffer for one's wisdom

    舊調重談to harp on the same string

    禮尚往來Courtesy on one side cannot last long.

    禮多必詐full of courtesy, full of craft

    覆水難收What's done cannot be undone.

    轉石不生苔A rolling stone gathers no moss.

    轉敗為勝to convert defeat into victory

    鞭長莫及beyond one's grasp

    關公門前耍大刀There's no need to teach a fish to swim.

    嚴以責己寬以待人to be severe with oneself and lenient with others

    鐵石心腸a heart of steel

    聽天由命to be guided by destiny

    驕者必敗Pride goes before a fall.

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