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匿名使用者 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

performative與speech acts的關係是?

performative與speech acts的關係是? 請賜教!



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  • 匿名使用者
    1 0 年前

    如果大大會問這個問題﹐大概直接看英文解說比較合適PERFORMATIVE運作效能式Paradoxical though it may seem, there are certain things one can do just by saying what one is doing. This is possible if one uses a verb that names the very sort of act one is performing. Thus one can thank someone by saying 'Thank you', fire someone by saying 'You're fired', and apologize by saying 'I apologize'. These are examples of 'explicit performative utterances', statements in form but not in fact. Or so thought their discoverer, J. L. Austin, who contrasted them with 'constatives'. Their distinctive self-referential character might suggest that their force requires special explanation, but it is arguable that performativity can be explained by the general theory of speech acts. 這裡有一篇很精彩的討論﹕[Austin的“performative”與言說者的行為有關,將之譯為「運作效能式」也無妨,但“performance ”,乃至是“theories of the performance”卻不是一般所謂的「行為科學」(behavioral science),也與這類科學的觀點無必然關連。] ACTS言辭行動 Making a statement may be the paradigmatic use of language, but there are all sorts of other things we can do with words. We can make requests, ask questions, give orders, make promises, give thanks, offer apologies, and so on. Moreover, almost any speech act is really the performance of several acts at once, distinguished by different aspects of the speaker's intention: there is the act of saying something, what one does in saying it, such as requesting or promising, and how one is trying to affect one's audience. 言辭行動的類型可分以下幾種(Habermas,1976:50-58):規約性的言辭行動(regulative speech acts)包括有命令、訓誡、禁止、拒絕、承諾、同意、推薦、建議、准許等等。一如其他類型的言辭行動,規約性的言辭行動中自然也宣稱了何謂真實,但規約性的言辭行動主要強調的是人際(言者與聽者)的規範關係,而這規範體現了一特定文化情境中的價值與傳統。表意的言辭行動(expressive speech acts)表達了說話者的希望、感覺與意向,這種「自我揭示」舉陳了對「真誠」(truthfulness)的宣稱──說話的人是誠懇地表達一己的意願──從中揭示了主觀世界。指述性的言辭行動(constative speech acts)中明白舉陳對真實的宣稱、認定真實。說話的人發聲為言,在其中,根據說話者的經驗與觀察,指述了客觀世界中的事物,語言「再現」(represent)了事物的狀態。描述言辭包括了斷言(assertion)、報告、說明、預測、指陳等。描述言辭也是在認定某一規範的基礎上進行對真實的指認,但言辭的重點在於描述真實。

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  • 匿名使用者
    1 0 年前


    Another linguistic question!

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