老師給我門的作業,題目是give an example of habituation in a wild animail, 要用英文回答問題~~~急~~~
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* Seahorse's ecology and habit:
The sea 馬屬 Pipefish branch (Syngnathidae), mostly grows to the coast epicontinental sea reef petrographic province, it female has, division of the male seahorse [ is the monoecism by no means, after also must be first female (male) male (female) ], endures to the pollution to be lower.
In the top of the head long has a crown (some varieties not to have), is located front end the forehead long to have attracts the tubular the mouth about, the good gill breath, on his/her body does not have the scale, does not have 尾鰭, covers to the gill each long has (majority of a piece 胸鰭 assumes the transparency, a piece 腹鰭 and the dorsal fin when swimming uses this fin), slow-moving lives in groups to the reef petrographic province and the seaweed grass area, about maximum height approximately 18cm - 25cm, take 活餌 as food (good harvest year shrimp, rice polishings shrimp, gun shrimp, fry....)
The reproduction to the bag hatches the type, is most special must be the birth, the strong character which the hatching gives birth is by the male seahorse holds the post of (note one), also therefore the male seahorse has hatches the oogonium (to nurture bag), the line 卵胎生, the wild seahorse its production contract in (10 - in April), the seahorse group can to the shallower sea area migration, seek the more appropriate production environment (also is small seahorse's habitat), after it completes the task, can again return to the original habitat (a waters deeper place).
Between its survival water depth approximately 10 - 30 M. Ordinary copulation and production temperature approximately to 26 to 29 ℃ (also some exceptions). Just about newborn small seahorse body long approximately 0.6-0.8cm, his/her the body length long had close relationship with the kind of male seahorse body.
Seeking a mate of the copulation time, hints on own initiative by the male seahorse to the female seahorse, agreed after the bride's side, then carries on the copulation, after this process, the fertilized egg hatches in the oogonium to the male seahorse, pauses approximately about seven weeks, after mature hatches the oogonium by the male seahorse to deliver, its quantity approximately several hundred does not wait (to decide build of by the male seahorse, build then quantity are greatly more), course of childbirth lasted approximately five to six hours about, the post-natal male seahorse beginning dismounts the heavy responsibility which is passed on from generation to generation, receives is the small seahorse grows, replaces the duty which the ancestor transfers, the date continues the month to grow continually, Forms a complete circulation.
(Qiu advances, Zhang Minghui, Ding Yunyuan according to the existing literature record, 1,973: 6). The seahorse majority of divides property equally to the Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, the Taiwan Penghu sea area, the Japanese sea area at present discovered has 30 varieties, produces to the Taiwan Penghu sea area, has the thorn seahorse in a big way, (is black) the seahorse, three spots seahorses, the gold seahorse, the red seahorse and so on. Are more by the black seahorse's quantity. Seahorse natural disposition gentle shy, approximate "green 蠵 turtle", when produces is disturbed can stop giving birth, or slows down gives birth the speed, after waits for it to think the environment is safe 無虞, the beginning continues to carry out continues the later ages the heavy responsibility.
* Seahorse's physiological structure
Seahorse systematic name Hippocampus, its Italy is the fish tail horse, namely front half-length after horse half-length water of for in the fish fish, is transportation vehicle which the sea god (Neptune) rides (Cai Chinsung, 1996:671). Also the seahorse itself forehead resembles the wharf, therefore has the seahorse (seahorse) this title. Also therefore the ordinary public figure of foreign nationality called it is "seahorse".
Has long front end the seahorse forehead attracts the tubular the mouth, front end the mouth has the mouth lid, prevented the game (活餌) escapes. Has the eye above the sea cock terminal which one corresponds, is located two sides, his/her eye respectively has the independent ability, may wilfully change, is respectively irrelevant, this meaning it may pinpoint (gaze goal which must seek), another pays attention whether has the enemy human desire attack (observation four directions to protect oneself in order to), really is mystery of the Heaven creation myriad things in (because its slow-moving, therefore heaven entrusts with this ability).
The brain is located the eye 後方 by the cranium protection, the cranium joint vertebra is continuing to end. After the sea cock connects the esophagus, the stomach, the intestines to 排泄口. The gill is located underneath the brain place above, the line of respiration, Yu Saikai is slanting has a freeing port (draining water to use), the gill covers additionally has 胸鰭, using of in order to help the balance. The heart is located front the pate and the chest, on its surface covers entirely the thick blood vessel, holds the post of the circulation and the metabolism duty. The kidney is located the vertebra the center-section, attaches on the vertebra obviously obviously. The liver, the gallbladder are located nearby the stomach and intestines. 精囊 (ovary) is located the liver, the gallbladder latter two sides tightly pastes to the after abdominal cavity membrane, loses the fine mouth to hatch in the oogonium (in vivo), loses the egg mouth to be located outside the abdominal cavity. The dorsal fin is located the vertebra the center-section 後方, with vertebra connection. The rear part is composed by the vertebra festival, when the free curl, uses in swims or the crawling advance, as well as when rest 攀附 uses. Outside his/her internal organs by the link protection which 外骨骼 forms, the interior protects by the abdominal cavity membrane.
Seahorse's hatching, the production holds the post by the male seahorse, the female seahorse then only bears the egg pours into the male seahorse to hatch in the oogonium, performs its own functions, this possibly is ascends the sky for make up the important decision which pain of the other living thing but does! (Male seahorse substitutes female seahorse to be pregnant, to give birth).
The seahorse also has female, the male division, from the contour shape may the obvious discrimination, the male seahorse have underneath the chest as soon as hatches the oogonium (to look resembles only is a skin), hatches the oogonium usually to assume like releases the gaseity, when is pregnant hatches the oogonium to assume like the sufficient gaseity, also hatches the oogonium for the seal 獨立式, is very easy to distinguish. Indifferent hatches the oogonium to the female seahorse's contour, but may indistinct see loses the egg apparatus (mouth) - to pour into the egg the male seahorse to hatch the oogonium the organ. However the male seahorse hatches in the oogonium to cover entirely many 微血管, in order to help when hatches the small seahorse, supplies nutrition and maintenance temperature. The female seahorse does not have, only has in vivo to lose all over the body the oviduct connection to outside the egg apparatus.
According to build male seahorse comparatively female seahorse slightly big, gives birth when then build bigger male seahorse it gives birth the quantity to be more. Digesting system very perfect, is very fast to the fish food digestion, at present the discovery has not had the digestive tract the pathological change.
* Seahorse's copulation and production process
The seahorse arrived the mating season (approximately from April to September about), the male seahorse starts to seek the pursue goal, because their line lives in groups the life, therefore pursues the female seahorse the male seahorse not only (by male seahorse initiative pursue), also therefore can have the phenomenon which is rivals for sexual favor.
First the male seahorse to when seeks a mate, can first choose the build suitable object, also the whole body changes color (assumes bright color, base pattern appears body on), its forehead tightly pastes the chest, clearly partially is assuming the dark coffee color the mouth to the eye (to have like human embarrassed time face to change red appearance), this time the male abdomen hatches the oogonium to blow up assumes swells rises the shape, also assumes the silver-white color, attraction opposite party, has like is telling the female seahorse to say: "Now I have the time and the space may for 妳 serve, quickly comes!" .
When the female seahorse seeks a mate, the whole body also can change color, its color and male seahorse same (variety same when) what, is different is it loses the egg apparatus to be able to highlight, also loses the egg apparatus 頭端 place to assume the coffee color.
If male, female to glances time, then male, female two namely abut in pairs in the same place, the abdomen crawls to under after the ground plays, the rear part mutually cancels immediately, about floats Yu Shuizhong, this time the male seahorse reproduction mouth expansion, reproduces by under toward general to lose on the egg apparatus the mouth attire to the female seahorse, after the experience 時數 second separates, this is line of first loses the egg movement (this kind of phenomenon sustainably five, six days, also for specificity), after separates, the male seahorse presents 陶陶 wants to be drunk also the very satisfied appearance.
Under when has several male seahorses simultaneously pursues a female seahorse, this time these male sea jockey clubs mutually are higher than (have like struggle for favor or said is martial arts contest), wins may first carry on a pair of copulation opportunity, heartily enjoys its pleasure.
After the copulation process, hatches the oogonium the reproduction mouth to seal up immediately (guards against with outside water is interlinked) the fertilized egg to hatch the oogonium to the male seahorse to pass through seven week about foster, after crowd of small seahorses Yu Nangnei is gradually mature, thereupon the preparation and the nature meet.
The male seahorse this time hatches the oogonium to rise greatly ties tight, looks like the very solid appearance, and has the off and on pre-natal convulsion (to have like humanity's pre-natal labor pain), the time length one (also does not have difficult labor phenomenon occurrence, has when this phenomenon its 活存 rate greatly decreases), after passes through this section of convulsion, starts to enter gives birth the stage, the productive time also along with plants seahorse's physiological condition and the build size decides, generally approximately is five to six hours, but also has the course of childbirth long, also has the course of childbirth short.
Thereupon the author probably divides into this production process three big stages, moreover no matter it produces fast quick or slow must pass through this three big stages, provides the reader to be advanced refers.
. The production process approximately may divide into three stages, this states as follows:
"First stage: Is in labor the male seahorse to start to present floats the dry restless appearance, also around the reproduction mouth has changes color the phenomenon (to assume dark coffee color), after a while, the whole body starts to present the convulsion phenomenon, the reproduction mouth aperture changes big also starts to have the straight sit-ups the movement (extrusion to hatch oogonium movement), the first arrival nature small seahorse assumes the spherical blowout, after first Shen Ch'ihde, then again makes an effort to work loose, a while time then floats to the water surface, breathes the first air, extrudes one from now on, male sea jockey club rest a while, then has the convulsion and the extrusion movement once again, crowds once more spouts the small seahorse, so repeatedly counts from now on, Finishes the first stage course of childbirth.
"Second stage: The male sea jockey club will hatch the oogonium to start to absorb water to fills the inflation about, and will meet about rocks (has like cleans jar movement), then the convulsion extrusion movement (will have like movement of again the first stage), but this stage extrusion blowout small seahorse quantity will be more (approximately about 20-30), this stage will deliver the small seahorse will assume spherically delivers but and all first Shen Ch'ihde, after but will be the blowout, directly will open the body, will float the water surface. This movement probably repeated to have five, six is next much, this time hatched the oogonium slightly to assume the concavity, also hatched the oogonium also to have absoring water the phenomenon.
"Third stage: The male seahorse will hatch oogonium absoring water to inflate once again, and will be able more intense about about to rock (also has like takes warehouse inventory movement), then again the convulsion and the extrusion movement (will have like movement of first, the two stages), but this stage extrusion blowout small seahorse quantity will be less (for example first stage quantity), after the like this movement probably will repeat N from now on (also will be takes warehouse inventory finishes), the male seahorse will start to have the exhausted appearance, thereupon it will be able to lie down in the ground rests, will restore the physical strength after it, will start to carry on looks for food and has continued its normal life.