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Kenneth T 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

請幫我翻成英文,感謝

白雪公主、睡美人、傑克與魔豆、小紅帽、灰姑娘等等這些都是我們耳熟能詳的童話故事。今天的童話故事是給小孩子讀的故事,然而過去卻不是。而這些看似千篇一律的童話故事,這些由「從前從前有個…」開始,到「最後終於過著幸福快樂的日子」作為結束的童話故事背後,有著什麼特殊或深層的涵義嗎?童話故事那種清楚明白的善惡二元對立,清楚明快的故事結構等等,有什麼特殊的原因嗎?還有誠如本書所問的,為什麼巫婆一定得死?巫婆的死代表什麼象徵性的涵義嗎?我們反覆閱讀相同童話故事所獲得的是什麼?這世界上大部分的人都閱讀過童話故事,或者精確一點的說,閱讀它們各自的童話故事。

而到底這些童話故事的用意是什麼?

  許凱登說童話故事是處理罪的問題,是幫助兒童認識自我人格特質的工具。童話故事中主人翁與巫婆往往犯下相同的錯誤,然而故事的結果是兩種極端的結果,為的是將那代表人格負面特質的巫婆處死,讓人格正在發展的孩童,藉由這樣的故事情節的發展,除去心中那份負面的人格特質。並且藉由反覆的閱,讀加強這種效果。像是白雪公主與皇后都犯了虛榮之罪,然而為什麼皇后卻得死,白雪公主卻得以過著幸福快樂的日子,你可以說皇后想要害死白雪公主,那也沒錯,不過白雪公主因著虛榮的緣故,再三讓自己身陷險境,也是因為虛榮的緣故阿。

  作者認為那是因為童話故事中的主人翁們,所代表的是現實生活中的孩子自己,童話故事藉由強烈的善惡二元對立,來突顯人格特質中的正負形象。許凱登說人的童年有七大罪,而在本書中分別使用一或數個童話故事來討論這七大罪,分別為虛榮(白雪公主)、貪吃(糖果屋)、忌妒(灰姑娘)、欺騙(養鵝女孩)、貪心(傑克與豌豆)、懶惰(木偶奇遇記)。故事的版本情節或有所不同,但是故事的主軸與中心主旨卻都擁有強烈的一致性。而既然童話故事中的主人翁與代表巫婆的邪惡人物所犯的都是相同的錯誤,為什麼主人翁可以獲得幸福的結局,而巫婆一定得死。許凱登說那是為了讓兒童能夠分別清楚人格中的善惡特質。

  然而得以超越善惡的寶物為何?在童話故事中總是出現魔法或者可以保護主人翁的寶物,作者認為這些寶物或魔法是一種移情之物。讓孩童或主人翁可也藉由這些寶物獲得代表所有正面特質的母性的保護,得以順利度過或去除故事中的不愉快。而這些移情物品最有名的像是泰迪熊、毛毯等等,移情物品可以幫助我們,使我們有受保護的安全感。許凱登認為童話故事中所出現的慘忍情節一來是為了幫助孩童可以強烈的與負面的人格特質劃清界限,二來則是真實史實的情況。童話故事源初是為了成人而寫,所以有許多描繪當時史實與性方面的情節。然而經過十九世紀維多利亞時代的新教禁欲等時代文化的轉手改寫後,童話故事成為兒童讀物。

許凱登說童話故事是隨著時代與社會文化的需要而會有所改變,像是今天我們所接受的童話故事版本,有著過去十九世紀所沒有的迪士尼動畫版本。而童話故事從口語傳播,到文字傳播,再到今天的影像傳播,這些傳播方式的變遷也造就了同一故事不同版本的情形。

  諸多版本的存在為的是符合社會的需求。每個時代都有特別需要處理強調的人格特質,而童話故事就會跟隨著時代的需要而側重不同的角度。然而作者認為到了今天,童話故事或許是最可以彰顯初過去初版那種成人風格的重要性的時代,而從台灣與日本乃至世界各地的重新發現成人版童話故事的風潮,不難發現作者的洞見。

  下一次當你再唸童話故事給小孩聽時,不妨參考一下本書附錄的童話故事使用指南,停下來問一問小孩一些問題。像是為什麼故事中的主角與巫婆都犯了同樣的錯,巫婆卻要遭受殘酷的懲罰。或是問問孩子,故事中的主人翁犯了什麼樣的錯誤?相信童話故事的閱讀將有助於健全人格的建構。(文,王乾任,文字工作者)

 

6 個解答

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  • 匿名使用者
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    All these are our children's stories that what's frequently heard can be repeated in detail that snow white , sleeping bueaty , Jack , beans of evil spirit , small red cap , Cinderella wait a moment. Children's story of today to give story that child read, but no in the past. And getting more stereotyped seemingly in these one children's story,these from ' piece in the past in the past ¡­' begin, get ' live happiness happy day ' as behind the children's story finishing at last, is there any special or deep meaning? The children's story , that kind of clear two yuan of good and evil , is set against, know lucid and lively story structure ,etc., is there any special reason? Ask sincerely just as a book, why must the witch die? Does the witch's death represent any symbolizing meaning? What do we obtain to read the same children's story repeatedly ? This most people in the world have read the children's story, or the a bit more accurate one says , read their one's own children's stories. And what are the purposes of these children's stories on earth? Kai Xu is it say children's story to deal with guilty problem , to help children know I tool , personality of speciality since to publish. The master and witch often make the same mistake in the children's story, but the result of the story is two kinds of extreme results, in order to put that to death on behalf of witch of the negative speciality of personality, the child letting personality develop, with the development of such a story plot, remove that negative personality speciality in the heart. And with repeated reading , read and strengthen this kind of result. As if snow white and queen have all made the crime of vanity, but why the queen must die , snow white can live happiness happy day, you can say queen think vital part die the snow white, that either it go wrong,but snow white because cause of vanity,let there aren't oneself repeatedly, because of vanity in A too. The author thinks that is because of masters in the children's story, what was represented is child in the actual life oneself, the children's story set strong two yuan of good and evil against, the ones that came in conspicuous personality speciality were shouldering the image. Xu Kai steps on and says that has seven major crime in people's childhood, use one or several children's stories to discuss this seven major crime separately in this book , it is the vanity respectively (snow white), eat (the candy room), jealous of (the Cinderella), cheats (grows the goose girl ), greedy (Jack and pea ) , lazy greedily(remember the adventure of puppet). Edition plots of the story are or different to some extent, but the main shaft and the centre purport of the story all have strong consistency . And since what evil personages of the witches of master and representative in the children's story made are all the same mistakes, why the master can obtain the happy final result , and the witch must die . Xu Kai steps on and says that is for enable children to know the good and evil speciality in personality separately. But why surmount the treasures of good and evil? Treasure that always presents the magic or can protect the master in the children's story, the author thinks these treasures or magics are a kind of thing which move the feeling . Let the child or the master represented protection of maternal instinct of all positive specialities with these treasures, can spend or get rid of the unhappiness in the story smoothly . And these move feeling article most famous as if teddy bear , woollen blanket ,etc., moving feeling articles can help us , make us have protected sense of safety. Kai Xu publish think children's story appear bear plot it comes to be for help child can drawing a clear line of demarcation with negative personality speciality strong miserably, it is second the situations of the true historical facts . The children's story is written with in order to grow up for the first time source, so there are the plots of historical facts and sex at that time of a lot of descriptions. But after culture through Victorian times such as being ascetic of Protestantism of times of the 19th century passes on rewriting , the children's story becomes the book for children. Xu Kai publishes and says that the children's story will change to some extent with the needs of era and social culture, as if the children's story edition that we accept of today, guided the cartoon edition of the Buddhist nun of persons unexistently in the past the 19th century. And the children's story spreads from the spoken language, spread to the characters, and then the image until today spreads, the changes of these circulation ways have brought up the situation of the same different editions of story too. The existence of a great deal of editions, in order to accord with the demand of the society. Is it need personality speciality emphasized to deal with especially to have each period of era, and children's story will follow the needs of era lay particular emphasis on different angles . But author is thought today, perhaps the children's story can be reflected and gone over in the era of the importance of that kind of adult's style of the first edition for the first time most, and from the agitation of Taiwan , Japan and even another discovery adult edition children's stories from all parts of the world, it is difficult to find that the author's hole is seen. Next time when you read the children's story for child , there is no harm in consulting the guide for use of children's story of this book appendix, stop to ask the child some questions. As if why the protagonist and witch in the story all make the same fault, but the witch wants to suffer the cruel punishment. Or ask the child, what kind of mistake master in the story has made ? It is believed that the reading of the children's story will contribute to the building and constructing of right personality. (Gentle, Wang Qian's office, characters worker)

    參考資料: Dr.eye 譯典通 6.0 (專業版)
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  • 匿名使用者
    7 年前

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  • 1 0 年前

    樓上的大大說的沒錯...嗯嗯~~

    >.<"

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  • 1 0 年前

    都是用翻譯機器~.~

    好爛

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  • 1 0 年前

    = =.......我誰也不投!!!!

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  • 1 0 年前

    Snow White,sleep the beauty,right bower with the evil bean,small red hat,the ash miss...etc. these are all our familiar to ear fairy tale.The fairy tale of today is the story that reads for child, however pass by but is not.And these see monotonous fairy tale, are these started by"formerly have a … formerly", go to the fairy tale back that"live the happy happy day finally at last" is the be over, have what special or deep connotation?Fairy tale does that kind of know the understand good and evil 2 dollar opposition, know the clear and quick story structure etc., has what special reason?Still have to ask as this book of, why does the sorceress have to certainly die?What symbol connotation does the dead of the sorceress represent?We read what same fairy tale acquire repeatedly are what?This is in the world greatly part of persons all read the fairy tale, saying of perhaps a little bit precision, read them each from of fairy tale.

    And exactly what is the intention of these fairy tales?

    Allowing the 凱 ascends to say the fairy tale is the problem that handles the offense, is the tool that helps the child the understanding ego personality characteristic.The master and the sorceress usually commits the same mistake in the fairy tale, however the result of the story is two kinds of extreme resultses, for of sentences to death that negative idiosyncratic sorceress that represents the personality, the kid who let the personality been developing, by such development of the story details, remove that negative personality characteristic in heart.And by reading repeatedly, read to strengthen this kind of result.Seemed Snow White and empresseses to all made the offense of the vainglory, however why empress but have to die, but Snow White can live the happy happy day, you can say the empress wants to harm the dead Snow White, that is also right, however Snow White because

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