1.Deterrence theory holds that if criminals are indeed rational, an inverse relationship should exist between punishment and crime. The certainty of punishment seems
to deter crime. If people do not believe they will be caught, even harsh punishment may not detercrime.
2.Deterrence theory has been criticized on the grounds that it wroqgfully assumes that criminals make a rational choice before comfuitting crimes, it ignores the intricacies of the criminal justice system, and it does not take into account the social and psychological
factors that may influence criminality.Research does not validate that the death penalty reduces the murder rate.
3. Specific deterrence theory holds that the crime rate can be reduced if known offenders are punished so severely that they nevepcommit crimes again. There is little evidence
tl1atharsh punishment actually reduces the crime rate. Most prison inmates recidivate.
4.Incapacitation theory maintains that if deterrence does not work, the best course of action is to incarcerate. known offenders for long periods so that they lack criminal opportunity.Research has not proved that increasing the number of people in prison-- and increasing prison sentences-will reduce crime rates.
5.Choice theory has been influential in shaping public policy. Criminal law is designed to deter potential criminals and fairly punish those who have been caught in illegal
acts. Sometourts have changed sentencing policies to adapt to classical principles, and the U.S. correctional system seems to be aimed, at incapacitation and specific
6. The just desert （社會公平正義）view is that criminal sanctions should be geared precisely to the seriousness of the crime. People should be purlished on the basis of whether they deserve to be punished for what they did and not because punishment may affect or deter their future behavior. The just desert concept argues that the use
of punishment to deter or control crime is morally correct because criminals deserve to be punished for their misdeeds.
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制止犯罪。 如果人不相信他們將被捕捉，甚至粗糙的處罰不可能 detercrime。
2.挽留的事物理論已經被批評在那之上理由它 wroqgfully 假定罪犯作在 comfuitting 犯罪前的理性的選擇，它不理睬犯罪的正義系統的紛亂，而且它進入帳戶社會的和心理學人之內不拿
3. 特定的挽留事物理論支撐，如果已知的罪犯被處罰，犯罪率能被減少如此的嚴重地以致於他們再一次的 nevepcommit 犯罪。 有很少的證據
tl 1atharsh 處罰實際上減少犯罪率。 大多數的監獄入獄者 recidivate。
行為。 Sometourts 已經改變宣判政策適應古典的原則，而且美國改正的系統似乎被對準目標，在無能力和特性
6. 正直的荒癈（社會公平正義）視野是犯罪的制裁應該精確地適應犯罪的嚴重。 人們應該是根據他們是否該得到 purlished 為他們做的被處罰而且不因為處罰可能影響或者制止他們的將來行為。 正直的荒癈觀念主張使用