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(ii)–(v) (comparisons with (ii) t ¼ 1:99, df¼44, P < 0:05; (iii) t ¼ 2:76, df¼44, P < 0:01; (iv) t ¼ 2:79, df¼44, P < 0:01; and (v) t ¼ 2:15, df¼44, P < 0:01). 3.2. Individual species The SPA network of 138 sites consistently included significantly greater numbers of birds for each individual species... 顯示更多 (ii)–(v) (comparisons
with (ii) t ¼ 1:99, df¼44, P < 0:05; (iii) t ¼ 2:76,
df¼44, P < 0:01; (iv) t ¼ 2:79, df¼44, P < 0:01; and
(v) t ¼ 2:15, df¼44, P < 0:01).
3.2. Individual species
The SPA network of 138 sites consistently included
significantly greater numbers of birds for each individual
species when compared with the random networks. In
comparison with the hypothetical networks produced
using strategies (ii)–(v), the individual species representation
was almost always lower or at best equal for the
SPAs. Indeed, this was always true for strategy (iv)
(Fig. 2). In addition, for many of the 17 species the gap
(ratio between the numbers of birds incorporated into
networks selected using the alternative methods and
those included in the SPA network) typically increased
over time. The largest gaps were observed using 1998/99
data (e.g. Fig. 2). For example, the maximum number of
goosander included by method (iv) was 4.6 times that of
the SPA network (Fig. 2). More specifically, method (iv)
included 2286 goosander in 1998/99 (64.6% of the national
population, n ¼ 3536) compared with 502 birds
(14.2% of the national total) recorded on the SPA network.
Similarly method (ii) incorporated 4.5 times more
smew, approximately 78% of the national total
(n ¼ 350) in 1998/99, compared with 61 (17.4% of the
national total) in the actual SPA network. The gap between
the numbers of birds on sites selected using the
alternative selection methods and those supported by
the SPA network was greater for those species with a
more dispersed distribution pattern compared with aggregating
species (Figs. 3a–d and 4). For example, substantially
more birds were included on networks selected
using the four alternative methods in all years for
goldeneye (Fig. 3a) and goosander (Fig. 3b), two dispersed
distribution species, as demonstrated by the larger
gaps. In contrast, for European white-fronted goose
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