no nickname 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 2 0 年前


 These include the records kept by companies, schools, hospital, prisons and the   military and can cover a multiplicity of subjects. A company, for example, might  collect data on employee headcount, employee turnover, promotions and absent-  teeism. In items of finance, many organizations are interested in knowing the sizeof their borrowing and the costs of financing it, turnover compared to profits and share price movements.     Examples of other kinds of institutional record include those organizationsresponsible for monitoring sex and race discrimination. In the latter case, organi-zations might collect data on the type and location of reported racial incidents,police responses and the actions, if any, of the judicial authorities. The episodes ofracial ‘ hotspots’ might be compare against other independent variables such as inflammatory speeches by certain politicians, media commentary, or the passingof equal opportunities legislation.    Personal records include letters, diaries, autobiographies, biographies and oral his-tories. Brewer (2000) suggests a way of classifying personal records across two dimensions . The first is whether the records are primary (compiled by the author)or secondary (containing data obtained from someone else’s primary document).A second dimension is contemporary (compiled as a document at the time) orsecondary (produced as a document after the event). Using these dimensions, weget four categories, as illustrated in Figure11.1    As Brewer warns, making generalizations from such documents can beproblematic, especially if they are personal documents about one individual. Thesemay be more possibility of generalizations if the documents can be shown to be representative or typical of a group. The contents of personal documents shouldalso be evaluated for distortion, misrepresentation, exaggeration and omission.

1 個解答

  • 2 0 年前

    這些包括那些記錄以公司,學校,醫院,監獄遵守和 軍隊和能包括一個許多主題。

    一家公司,例如,權力 收集關於雇員headcount,雇員營業額的數據,提升和缺席 teeism。

    在金融的項目方面,很多組織有興趣知道尺寸 他們外來詞和財務費用它,營業額與相比獲益和 股票價格運動。

    其他類慣例的記錄的例子包括那些組織 負責監控性和比賽區別。

    在後面例子中,organi zations 可以在報告的種族事件的類型和位置上收集數據, 如果有的話,警察回應和行動,法院當局的。

    插曲 人種¯hotspots 可能反對其他自變數比較 某些政治家,媒介評論或者透過的煽動性的講話 相等的機會立法。

    人事擋案包括信,日記,自傳,傳記和口頭的他的 tories。 啤酒釀造人(2000)建議一種穿過兩分類人事擋案的模式 尺寸。

    第1 是是否記錄是主要的 (由作者編輯) 或者第二(包含數據被從某人else s那裡獲得主要資料)。

    第2 尺寸當代(作為一份資料在那時編輯)或者 二次(在事件之后作為一份資料產生)。

    我們,使用這些尺寸 得到4 個種類,象在Figure11.1裡說明的那樣 因為啤酒釀造人警告,來自這樣的資料的使概括可能 成問題, 特別是如果他們是大約一個人的個人文件。

    這些 如果那些資料可能被顯示,可能是概括的更多的可能性 一組代表性或者典型。

    個人文件的內容應該 此外被為變形,虛偽陳述,誇張和省略評價。

    參考資料: 參考看看吧!!