shino 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前


Across the world there are government health promotion strategies and reviews, statutory authorities and foundations, consumer interest groups, professional associations and journals. University departments and professors proudly bear the name, Masters and Bachelor degrees are in abundance and a new textbook seems to appear every few months. Millions of dollars are now increasingly being invested in health promotion programmes by governments and international organizations such as the World Bank, as well as through voluntary contributions from people themselves (Catford, 2003 ). It is quite remarkable that this has all happened in just two decades. But how true is the practice of health promotion to those principles developed in 1984? The International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) World Conference in Melbourne in April 2004 provides us with an opportunity to examine our record card and to build for the future. The origins of health promotion are complex and no single driver is responsible. However, most commentators would agree that the shift in thinking began to occur around an important global meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO) at Alma Ata in the state of Kazak in the former Soviet Union in 1978. The declaration that resulted crucially recognized that health improvements would not occur just by developing and financing health services, which had been the focus for investment since the Second World War (WHO, 1978 ). It provided the seedbed for the development of health promotion in the following decade to reach out to other sectors.

Most notably, The Declaration of Alma Ata formally adopted primary health care (PHC) as the principle mechanism for health care delivery. This was a vital signal to developing countries that were increasingly investing in high-cost hospital systems, which were only available to a limited few, i.e. those in urban centres who could pay.

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  • 1 0 年前

    橫過那裡的世界是政府健康晉升策略和檢討,法定主管當局和基礎,消費者興趣團體,專業的協會和日記。大學部門和教授傲慢地註明名字,主人和學士學位大量地而且一本新的教科書似乎每個幾個月出現。數百萬元被現在逐漸地被政府和國際的組織 , 像是世界銀行投資在健康晉升計劃,連同透過來自人的自動的貢獻他們自己. (Catford, 2003)它相當令人注目這在只有二十年內已經全部發生。但是對在 1984 年被發展的那些原則的健康晉升的練習多真實?為健康晉升和教育 (IUHPE)的國際聯盟世界會議在墨爾本在 2004 年四月提供一個機會給我們調查我們的紀錄卡片並且今後建立。健康晉升的起源是複雜的和沒有單身的駕駛員是有責任的。然而,大多數的講評者將會同意思考的變化開始在 1978 年以前蘇聯在 Kazak 的狀態的舞孃 Ata 的世界衛生組織 (世界衛生組織)的一個重要全球會議的周圍發生。決定性地產生的公告辨認出了健康進步僅僅藉著發展而且供給公共醫療經費將不發生,這自從第二次世界大戰以後已經是投資的焦點。(世界衛生組織, 1978)它提供苗床給在未來十年中的健康晉升的發展與其他的部門接觸。

    最特別地,舞孃 Ata 的公告正式地為健康保健人遞送採用了如原則機制的初期醫療 (PHC)。這是對正在逐漸地投資在高-費用醫院系統的發展中國家的一個重要的信號,唯一的是可得的到一個有限公司少數的,在可以支付的都市的中心中也就是那些。

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