鄭小樹 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

英文翻譯...What are the necessary

What are the necessary conditions for demonstrating classical conditioning?How might these conditions be met when a dog is conditioned to salivate? Explain.

First, identify a stimulus that triggers a biologically programmed response. That will be the US that triggers a UR reliably prior to training. Then a neutral stimulus must be chosen to serve as a CS. Next, the US and CS are presented together on many acquisition trials. Eventually, the previously neutral warning signal (CS) will produce the CR when presented alone. Dogs salivate (UCR) to the taste of meat (US). To condition a dog to salivate, choose a sensory warning signal (bell or light) to serve as a CS. Present that warning signal repeatedly with the food. Eventually after many acquisition trials, the warning signal CS will trigger salivation (CR).

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  • 1 0 年前
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    這是一個學習心理學的知名試驗!What are the necessary conditions for demonstrating classical conditioning?How might these conditions be met when a dog is conditioned to salivate? Explain.如果要展述古典制約理論,有那些必要的制約條件?這些制約條件又是怎樣搭配,弄得一隻狗兒不停地流口水呢?請說明之。First, identify a stimulus that triggers a biologically programmed response. That will be the US that triggers a UR reliably prior to training. Then a neutral stimulus must be chosen to serve as a CS. 答:首先,辨識一種刺激會觸發生物本能的反應,也就是說,經過訓練,非制約刺激(US)確實會觸發一種非制約反應(UR)。故一種不確定的刺激必定會被選為制約刺激(CS)。Next, the US and CS are presented together on many acquisition trials. Eventually, the previously neutral warning signal (CS) will produce the CR when presented alone. Dogs salivate (UR) to the taste of meat (US). 其次,在許多強制試驗中,非制約刺激(US)與制約刺激(CS)會一起呈現。事實上,先前(狗狗流口水)不確定的警示(CS,制約刺激)單獨發生時,將造成制約反應(CR)。狗狗想吃肉肉(US,非制約刺激)就會流口水(UR,非制約反應)。 To condition a dog to salivate, choose a sensory warning signal (bell or light) to serve as a CS. Present that warning signal repeatedly with the food. Eventually after many acquisition trials, the warning signal CS will trigger salivation (CR).  要制約狗狗流口水,選擇一種敏銳的警示(鈴聲或燈光)來當做制約刺激(CS),不停地向狗狗展現警示與食物,事實上,經過多次強制試驗,這個警示(CS,制約刺激)就會觸發流口水(CR,制約反應)了!UR(Unconditioned Response,非制約反應)US(Unconditioned Stimulus,非制約刺激)  CS(Conditioned Stimulus,制約刺激) CR(Conditioned Response,制約反應)CER(Conditioned Emotion Response,制約情緒反應)巴夫洛夫的狗(Pavlov's Dog),心理學史上最古老、最廣為人知也可能是花費最便宜的實驗之一。在那個沒有動物權的年代,這位俄國心理學家靠著虎爛一隻倒楣狗一打鈴就有東西吃,害那隻狗一聽到鈴響就拚命流口水,由此決定了心理學上最重要的理論之一:古典制約理論(classical condition),以及一隻最有名的無名狗。(摘自:Xuite日誌:漂鳥夢遊仙境 )

    參考資料: 參考網路資料與個人用心譯!
  • 什麼是必要條件為了示範古典的訓練?如何可以這些狀況是遇見狗被達到要求的情況過量分泌唾液的時候? 解釋.

    第一,識別引發生物學上編回答的刺激. 那會是引發烏爾可靠地訓練之前的美國. 然後中立的刺激必定得作為戰慄時空選. 下一個,美國和戰慄時空被介紹一起上許多的獲得物試驗. 最後,以前中立的報警信號 (戰慄時空) 會生產介紹獨自的哥斯大黎加. 狗過量分泌唾液 (UCR) 到嘗起來有肉 (美國). 到狀況狗過量分泌唾液,選擇感覺的報警信號 (鈴手術室光) 到作為戰慄時空. 介紹那報警信號重覆地和食物. 最後之後許多的獲得物試驗,報警信號戰慄時空將引發流涎症 (哥斯大黎加).

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