John 發問時間: 科學化學 · 1 0 年前

硝酸鉀的工業製法

硝酸鉀的工業製法是什麼啊?有同學在問...不曉得他要做啥?該不會...不過我也想知道怎麼做...放心我不會告訴她,也不會用來做其他事...

4 個解答

評分
  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    KNO

    圖片參考:http://www.wordpedia.com/search/FontImage/N/JP/A00...

    中和法 用氫氧化鉀或碳酸鉀中和硝酸﹐經蒸發結晶製得硝酸鉀﹔或用氫氧化鉀或碳酸鉀溶液吸收硝酸生產中的尾氣並加工製得硝酸鉀。

  • Tiger
    Lv 5
    1 0 年前

    I couldn't find any better Chinese version, let me copied this reference for you...please let me know if further question.ManufactureHistorically, nitre-beds were prepared by mixing manure with either mortar or wood ashes, common earth and organic materials such as straw to give porosity to a compost pile typically 1.5 metres high by 2 metres wide by 5 metres long. The heap was usually under a cover from the rain, kept moist with urine, turned often to accelerate the decomposition and leached with water after approximately one year. The liquid containing various nitrates was then converted with wood ashes to potassium nitrates, crystallized and refined for use in gunpowder.In England, the privilege of manufacturing explosives had been in the hands of the family of John Evelyn, the celebrated diarist, as a crown monopoly since before 1588.Today, most potassium nitrate comes from the vast deposits of sodium nitrate (NaNO3, nitratine) in the Chilean deserts. The sodium nitrate is purified and then reacted in solution with potassium chloride (KCl, sylvite), from which the less-soluble potassium nitrate is precipitated out.ApplicationsOne of the most useful applications of potassium nitrate is in the production of nitric acid, by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to an aqueous solution of potassium nitrate, yielding nitric acid and potassium sulfate which are separated through fractional distillation.Potassium nitrate is also used as a fertilizer, as a model rocket propellant, and in several fireworks such as smoke bombs, in which a mixture with sugar produces a smoke cloud of 600 times their own volume. In the process of food preservation, potassium nitrate is a common ingredient of salted meat, but heart patients need take care with it. Potassium Nitrate is also a main component in stump remover; it accelerates the natural decomposition of the stump. It has also been used in the manufacture of ice cream and is the active ingredient in toothpaste for sensitive gums.

    2006-04-12 07:20:11 補充:

    A popular misconception is that potassium nitrate is an antaphrodisiac and was added to food in all-male institutions. In fact potassium nitrate has no such effect in humans.

    2006-04-12 07:20:22 補充:

    Recently, the use of potassium nitrate in toothpastes for sensitive teeth has increased dramatically, despite the fact that it has not been shown to actually help dental hypersensitivity.

    參考資料: from Tiger & google.com
  • 1 0 年前

    To drifter

    回答的很好!但我是問硝酸鉀,不是問硝酸啦!有點文不對題喔!

  • 睿達
    Lv 4
    1 0 年前

    硝酸鉀(KNO3):俗稱智利硝石,可混合木炭、硫黃製成火藥。亦可做為防腐

             劑或肥料。

    硝酸工業(HNO3 ):

     (1)又稱為國防工業之母。

     (2)濃硝酸可用於製造硝化甘油、硝化纖維、火藥及染料。

     (3)稀硝酸用於製造硝酸鈉、硝酸鉀、硝酸銨及硝酸鹽肥料等藥品。

     (4)工業上製造硝酸的方法共可分為三種:

      a.智利硝石法:將硝酸鉀和濃硫酸共同加熱,便可得到硝酸及硫酸氫鉀。

      b.電弧法:將氮氣與氧氣利用電弧點燃氧化成一氧化氮,然後讓一氧化氮繼續

           吸收氧氣,成為二氧化氮,溶與水即得硝酸。

      c.)氨的氧化法:將氨氣與氧氣混合,利用鉑絲網催化成一氧化氮,降溫再與氧

             結合成二氧化氮,再降溫度以水吸收即為硝酸。

    參考資料: 書中自有黃金屋
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