Vivian.L 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

(翻)幫我翻語音學的東西

語音的研究包含兩個不同但又相關的科目:「音韻學」(phonology)與「語音學」(phonetics)。這兩個科目研究的具體對象相同,但研究的角度不同,音韻學從人類語言知識的角度探討語言的抽象系統,語音學則從人類語言行為的角度,探討做為傳達語言知識的媒介所具體表現的物理的、生理的、心理的性質。

音韻學和語音學雖然分為不同的科目,但是兩科其實是相輔相成的,為了了解音韻學,不能不掌握語音學的一些基本概念,同時語音學的研究也必須和音韻學的研究緊密的連結。

語音學研究人類說話時所使用的聲音。人類所能製造的聲音很多,也可能用來傳達意思,譬如「鼓語」,但鼓語並非語言學研究的對象,當然也不是語音學研究的對象。人類的發音器官可以發出許多音,但並非所有的音都可能用為「語音」(speech sounds)來說話,譬如笑、哭、打鼾、打嗝聲、打哈欠、打噴嚏,咬牙切齒等,這些不由自主所發出的聲音,不適合做為表達心意的工具,因此不能成為說話的聲音,當然也不是「語音學」研究的對象。只有能夠用來傳達意思的、用人類的發音器官所發出的聲音才是「語音學」研究的對象。

研究人類語音的學問叫做「語音學」(phonetics)。「語音學」可以由三個不同的角度來研究,三種不同的研究角度反映出語音學的三個主要分科:

生理語音學/發音語音學(articulatory phonetics):研究發音的生理機制。

聲學語音學/音響語音學(acoustic phonetics):使用實驗儀器研究語音的物理性質。

聽覺語音學(auditory phonetics):研究語音的心理機制。

傳統上,大部分的音韻學理論研究以生理語音學為基礎,但聲學語音學和聽覺語音學逐漸受重視。

1.1發音器官

發音器官由肺(liver)、喉嚨(larynx)、口腔(oral cavity)、鼻腔(nasal cavity)四個主要部分組成。「語音」由調節氣體在發音器官的流動而產生。語音學家稱氣流的調節機制叫「氣流機制」(air-stream mechanism)。氣體可以由口腔外向內流動而構成語音,如吸氣音(implosive),但是很少語言使用,漢語中比較出名的是閩南語海南方言。絕大多數的語音由肺呼出(pulmonic egressive)。

5 個解答

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  • 最佳解答

    The research of the speech includes two dissimilarities but again related subject:"Phonology"(phonology) and"phonetics"(phonetics).The concrete object homology of these two subject researches, but research of angle dissimilarity, the phonology is from the mankind the language knowledge of the angle study language of abstract system, the phonetics is from the mankind then language behavior of angle, study be used as medium of informing the language knowledge the concrete performance of physics of, physiology of, mental state of property.

    Although the phonology and phonetics are divided into a different subject,two sections are in fact complement each other, have to control some basic concepts of the phonetics for the sake of the understanding phonology, the research of the phonetics has to also study close link with phonology in the meantime.

    The phonetics studies the mankind talk use of voice.Mankind can the voice of the manufacturing is a lot of, may also use to inform meanings, like"the drum language", but the drum language not linguistics research of object, certainly also not is phonetics research of object.The mankind's speech organs can send out many sounds, but not all sounds may use for"speech"(the speech sounds) to talk, like smile, cry, snore, hiccup a voice and gape, sneeze, gnash the teeth with hatred etc., these involuntarily the voice sent out isn't suitable for to be used as tool of expressing the intention, so can't become talking of voice certainly is not the object of"phonetics" research either.Only can use to inform meanings of, use the mankind's voice that the speech organs sends out just BE"phonetics" research of object.

    The knowledge that studies mankind's speech is called "phonetics"(phoneti

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  • 9 年前

    是英文系的第一句的語音學〝研究〞就應該翻"study",

    而不是"research" !!!~"~

    Phonetics is the study of speech sounds of a language.

    語音學是一種語言的語音研究

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  • 1 0 年前

    根本就是用翻譯軟體翻出來的.....

    最好英文系的會這樣翻

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  • 1 0 年前

    是阿~我點數不夠嘛>"<

    希望有好心人~

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  • 1 0 年前

    要翻譯這一篇,贈點50也不嫌少~!

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