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In venturing outside the united states, wal-mart had the option of entering Europe. Asia, or other countries in the western hemisphere. It realized that it did not have the resources-financial, organizational, and managerial-to enter them all simultaneously, and it opted instead for a carefully considered.... 顯示更多 In venturing outside the united states, wal-mart had the option of entering Europe. Asia, or other countries in the western hemisphere. It realized that it did not have the resources-financial, organizational, and managerial-to enter them all simultaneously, and it opted instead for a carefully considered. Learning-based approach to marker entry.During the first 5 years of its globalization (1991 to 1995)., Wal-mart concentrated heavily on establishing a presence in the Americas: Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Canada. This choice was motivated by the fact that the European market was less attractive the Wal-mart as a first point of entry. The European retail industry was already mature, which meant that a new entrant would have to take market share away from an existing player. There were well-entrenched competitors, such as Carrefour in France and Metro A.G. in Germany, that would be likely to retaliate vigorously. Moreover, European retailers had formats similar to Wal-mart’s, reducing Wal-mart’s competitive advantage. Wal-mart might have overcome these difficulties by entering Europe through an acquisition, but the higher growth rates of Latin American and Asian markets would have made a delayed entry into those markets extremely costly in terms of lost opportunities. In contrast, the opportunity costs of delaying acquisition-based entries into European markets were relatively small. Asian markets also presented major opportunities, but they were geographically and culturally more distant. For these reasons, Wal-mart chose as its first global points of entry Mexico (1991), Brazil (1994), and Argentina (1995), the countries with the three largest populations in Latin America.
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