心心 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

可以幫我解釋一下規定性文法與描述性文法的不同嗎

Explain the difference between prescriptive grammar and descriptive grammar.

可以用中文或英文解釋

不需太冗長

可各位幫忙

感謝

2 個解答

評分
  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    Prescriptive grammar---一般來說是設計出來的pattern。主要的用處是給外國人學目標語文時可以學習的文法規律。

    而 Descriptive grammar是實際上natives在用時不自覺的規律,儘管有些以Prescriptive grammar的角度來看是錯的。

    一般來說像我們現在在學英文時的文法就是屬於Prescriptive grammar

    而那些主張不要學文法的學者主張藉由多說多聽多用目標語言互動就會學會文法(這應該指的就是Descriptive grammar)

    你在學語言學還是語言教育概論? 我以前也有學過說。

    a prescriptive grammar is one that lays down the rules for English language usage, while a descriptive grammar synthesises rules for English usage from the language that people actually use. A prescriptive grammarian believes that certain forms used are correct and that others, even though they may be used by native speakers, are incorrect. Many prescriptivists feel that modern linguistics, which tends to place emphasis on actual rather than perceived language usage, is responsible for a decline in the standard of language.

    Descriptivists look at the way people speak and then try to create rules that account for the language usage, accepting alternative forms that are used regionally and also being open to forms used in speech that traditional grammars would describe as errors.

    As with so much in English, both sides have a lot to offer. Pure prescriptivist grammar will lead to artificial claims that are hard to maintain in light of the facts. While prescriptivists would prefer the use of the past subjunctive after if (If I were you, etc), it is very difficult to claim that everyone who uses was is wrong, especially as they are the majority in spoken language. Google puts past subjunctive just over 10% ahead, though it is recording written text only. While there are still traditionalist grammarians claiming that they are right and half the population is wrong, most have modified their approach and talk of this form as preferable, or describe it as formal register, and ESL examination boards no longer test it, bit accept both.

    參考資料: 自已 TOEIC 825
  • 匿名使用者
    1 0 年前

    買本語言學,裡頭會有這兩種語法的定義、解釋~

    這是語言學裡最基礎的入門知識

    不過由你刪略的發問題目中可知你不是外文系的~

    建議你不要在這邊找人給你這個定義、那個解釋

    要確實詳細的正解,修外文系或是買本語言學來翻讀~

    2006-09-09 12:11:49 補充:

    再者,外文系所命題不會這麼草率

    且這種題目在外文所考試中只佔兩分或四分,很少單獨一大題作申論

    教授旨在考考生懂不懂箇中差別

    故多做延伸的辨別考題

    外文所考試出這種題目算大大的送分題~

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