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Milk is an excellent growth medium for microorganisms such as bacteria , yeast ,and molds . In the early 1900s , it was frequently the vehicle for carrying such serious foodborne illnesses as typhoid , diphtheria, scarlet fever , and tuberculosis . pasteurization , named after Louis Pasteur , was originally used to treat wine and beer , but soon came into use to treat milk as well , when it was found that heating milkfor ashort time to below its boil-ing point killed microorganisms . Pas-teurization destroys 100 percent of pathogenic bacteria , yeasts ,and molds and 95 to 99 percent of other , non-pathogenic bacteria . The process of pas-teurization aslo inaactivates many of the enzymes that cause the off-flavors of rancidity . Almost all milk sold com-mercially in North America is first pas-teurized . In some states , where allowed by law , there is a small niche for unpas-teurized , or raw , milk .

To ensure that sufficient pasteuriza-tion has occurred , milk processors measure the activity of a specific enzyme found in milk , alkaline phos-phatsase . If this enzyme is no longer active , then the milk is safe for con-sumption . Pasteurization temperatures and times vary , but the ones most com-monly used by milk processors are the first two listed in Table 11-4 . Even though pastrurized milk is ni longer pathogenic , it will still spoil because 1 to 5 percent nonpathogenic bacteria remaining convert lactose to lactic acid .

Ultrapasteurization . A process called ultrapasteurization uses higher temperatures than regular pas-teurization temperatures to extend the shelf life of refrigerated milk prod-ucts . If this same treatment is com-bined with sterile packaging techniques , it is called ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) processing . UHT processing destroys even more bacteria than standard pasteurization and increases the milk's shelf life .

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  • 1 0 年前
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    牛奶是微生物(例如細菌,酵母和霉菌)的一種豐盛的發展媒介。 在20世紀初,這經常是運送象似斑疹傷寒,白喉炎,猩紅熱和結核病這樣的嚴重的食物傳染病的車輛。 巴氏消毒法, 以路易士‧巴斯德命名, 最初被用來處理酒和啤酒, 但是不久開始使用與也治療奶,什麼時候發現milkfor ashort時間加熱與在下面殺死微生物的它點沸騰ing的。 先行權teurization 破壞百分之100的病原的細菌,酵母和霉菌和百分之95到99的其他,非病原細菌。 先行權teurization aslo inaactivates的過程引起惡臭的離味道的大多數 。 幾乎所有牛奶出售com-mercially在北美洲首先是先行權teurized。 在一些國家,被法律允許的地方,對于unpas-teurized有一個小的適當的位置,或者生,牛奶。

    為了保證足夠的pasteuriza-tion已經發生,牛奶處理器測量在牛奶,鹼的phos-phatsase裡找到的一種具體的 的活動。 如果這種 不再活性, 然後牛奶是安全的對于反面sumption。 巴氏消毒法溫度和時代變化,但是大多數com-monly牛奶處理器使用的是在表格11-4 列舉的第1 個兩。 即使pastrurized牛奶是病原長ni,它仍然腐爛,因為保持的百分之1到5的非病原的細菌把乳糖轉化成乳酸。

    Ultrapasteurization。 與延長冷藏牛奶刺ucts的儲存期的一般的先行權teurization溫度相比較,一個稱為ultrapasteurization的過程使用更高的溫度。 這相同處理與不結果組裝技術一起com把..扔入廢紙簍如果,叫超高溫度的(UHT)處理。 與標準巴氏消毒法相比較,UHT 處理破壞更多的細菌,增加牛奶的儲存期。

    參考資料: 自己
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