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匿名使用者 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

求: 有關於自信或是禮貌的英文文章



1 個解答

  • 匿名使用者
    1 0 年前

    自信 :

    In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth includes a person's subjective appraisal of himself or herself as intrinsically positive or negative to some degree.

    Self-esteem involves both self-relevant beliefs (e.g., "I am competent/incompetent", "I am liked/disliked") and associated self-relevant emotions (e.g., triumph/despair, pride/shame). It also finds expression in behavior (e.g., assertiveness/timorousness, confidence/caution). In addition, self-esteem can be construed as an enduring personality characteristic (trait self-esteem) or as a temporary psychological condition (state self-esteem).

    Major definitions of self-esteem

    The term "self-esteem" is one of the oldest concepts in psychology, having been first coined by American psychologist and philosopher William James in 1890. It is one's mental perception of his qualities, not physical features. In addition, self-esteem is the third most frequently occurring theme in psychological literature and over 25,000 articles, chapters, and books refer to the topic Given such a long and varied history, it is not surprising to find three major types of definitions in the field, each of which has generated its own tradition of research, findings, and practical applications. The original definition presents self-esteem as a ratio that is found by dividing one’s successes in areas of life that are important to a given individual by the failures in them or one’s “success / pretensions”


    Politeness is best expressed as the practical application of good manners or etiquette. It is a culturally defined phenomenon, and what is considered polite in one culture can often be quite rude or simply strange in another.

    While the goal of politeness is to make all of the parties relaxed and comfortable with one another, these culturally defined standards at times may be manipulated to inflict shame on a designated party.

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