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G米 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

請大家幫幫忙 行政學中翻英-4

昨天12/23還有1到3系列的翻譯 請大家多多幫忙 行政學中翻英

Legislative oversight is strengthened by the General Accounting Office (GAO),an operating staff arm Congress created in 1921 and originally designed to audit government expenditures. Since 1950 the GAO has been moving into what might be called management audits. These audits are policy oriented,seeking to determine what the basis for agency decisions and actions were.(See Chapter 11 for a fuller discussion of the GAO.)

Critics of legislative oversight contend that it often leads to micromanagement,which can be expensive. The Agriculture Department cannot even study whether potential savings might result from the consolidation of Forest Service regional offices. The secretary of cannot even close a small facility in state where both senators say defense spending should be cut. The Veterans Administration needs congressional approval for any personal action affecting three or more people.

The other means by which Congress,or any other U.S.legislative body,exercises control over executive agencies is appropriations process. Harold Seidman summarizes what the words“power of the purse”can mean to a public administrator:

As allies,the executive agencies and legislative committees make common cause against the“third house of Congress”:.the appropriation committees. Lords of the executive establishment generally enjoy the cozy atmosphere of legislative committee hearings,where they are received with courtesy and the deference due their office. But they shun,wherever possible,meetings with appropriations subcommittees,whose chairmen on occasion may accord them about the same amount of deference as a hardboiled district attorney shows to a prisoner in the dock. Before the House Appropriations Committee obtained new quarters,it was not uncommon for high officials to stand hat-in-hand for up to an hour in the corridors of the Capitol basement awaiting to be summoned by their appropriations subcommittee.

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    一般的主計室加強立法的疏忽 ]全球大氣研究計畫辦事處 ^ 在1921年建立並且最初用于審計政府支出的Aan作業員臂代表大會。 自從全球大氣研究計畫辦事處一直搬進所可能被叫為管理的的1950查帳。 這些審計工作是政策確定代理決定和行動的基礎是什麼的面向的Aseeking。 ]關於一個全球大氣研究計畫辦事處的更充分的討論請參閱第11章。 ^

    立法的疏忽的批評家力辯它經常導致微視指揮Awhich可能是昂貴的。 農業部甚至不能學習是否潛在的儲蓄可以起因于森林服務地區辦公室的鞏固。 這位秘書在兩名參議員在那裡說軍費開支被削減的狀態關閉甚至不能小設備。 榮民管理為任何個人行動影響3 或更多人需要大會的贊成。

    透過那國會Aor任何其他U.S.legislative 身體Aexercises對執行代理的控制是撥款過程的其它方法。 哈樂德‧塞德曼作總結,什麼單詞" 這個錢包的能力" 能對一名公眾管理者G 想

    作為同盟者Athe 執行代理和立法委員會使普通原因在上" 第3 國會議院" G.the 撥用委員會。 執行建立的勛爵一般享受立法的委員會聽証會Awhere的適宜的空氣他們已經禮貌和敬重收到適當他們的辦公室。 但是他們躲避Awherever可能的Ameetings 有撥款小組委員會Awhose主席有時可能給予大約相同數額的敬重的他們一hardboiled地方檢察官給一名已決犯在碼頭內讓看當時。 在議院之前撥款委員會獲得新Ait住處, 不罕見高的官員在等待被他們的撥款小組委員會召喚的國會大廈地下室的走廊裡站帽子手頭到一個小時。 .

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