Obviously, objectives occasionally have to be modified or changed. It is generally the job of a company’s top managers to consider the needs of the future, and to take responsibility for innovation, without which any organization can only expect a limited life. Top managers also have to manage a business’s relations with customers, suppliers, distributors, bankers, investors, neighbouring communities, public authorities, and so on, as well as deal with any major crises which arise. Top managers are appointed and supervised and advised (and dismissed) by a company’s board of directors.
Although the tasks of a manager can be analysed and classified in this fashion, management is not entirely scientific. It is a human skill. Business professors obviously believe that intuition and ‘instinct’ are not enough; there are management skills that have to be learnt. Drucker, for example, wrote nearly 30 years age that ‘Altogether this entire book is based on the proposition that the days of the “intuitive” manager are numbered, meaning that they were coming to an end. But some people are clearly good at management, and others are not. Some people will be unable to put management techniques into practice. Others will have lots of technique, but few good ideas. Outstanding managers are rather rare.
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即使經理人的工作能夠以此方式加以分析和歸類，管理這門學問仍舊並非全然由科學理論就能完全實踐。還是需要人為的技巧。商業專家深深相信，光憑直覺跟本能是不夠的，所謂的管理技巧仍需要學習才能有效運用。以 Drucker 近 30 年來所寫的，「這整本書所闡述的基本論點就是，憑直覺行事的經理人的日子已然逐漸結束」，也就是說這種行事風格將日趨式微。某些人真的精通管理的技巧，其他人則不然。有部分的人將無法確實實踐管理技巧的實務；另一群人則是空有技巧，腦袋裡卻苦無好點子。真正傑出的經理人是非常稀有的。參考資料： 自己