In a large number of clinical trials for other types of
cancer, it was concluded that immunotherapy is probably
most efficacious in early-stage cancers. As such,
immunotherapy is suitable for the adjuvant treatment of
superficial bladder cancer. Indeed, the clinical results of
immunotherapy trials are promising for their use in a
multimodality treatment strategy required for this
malignancy. Theoretically, active immunotherapy aimed
at the activation of the cellular adaptive immune system
is the most attractive form, since this treatment modality
can induce immunosurveillance through the generation
of memory effector T cells and may in this way protect
the patient from tumor recurrence and metastasis.
Ongoing and future clinical trials on active immunotherapy
for superficial bladder cancer will demonstrate
whether this theory can be supported by clinical-based
evidence. There is a great challenge in overcoming a
number of major hurdles in the clinical development of
active immunotherapy, which are, amongst others, dictated
by the heterogeneity of cancer within a patient as
well as between patients. For immunogene therapy,
efficient and targeted gene transfer as well as sustained,
stable therapeutic gene expression for a long period of
time will be essential for clinical success. For vaccination,
most vaccines are currently restricted to patients
matching a defined HLA haplotype or are based on
autologous material and therefore complex to produce.
Standard vaccines that can be applied in large patient
populations are desirable but may not be established in
the near future.
- 1 0 年前最佳解答
因此, 免疫療法適合幫助治療輕微膀胱癌患者. 確實, 免疫療法實驗的臨床結果為惡性腫瘤所用的多模態物理療法帶來希望. 理論上, 有效免疫療法是最引人注意的形式,目的在細胞適應免疫系統的活化, 因為這種治療性的物理治療能透過記憶受動器T細胞的產生誘導免疫監視, 這種方法可以防止腫瘤復發和轉移.
對療輕微膀胱癌患者做持續和進一步的臨床有效免疫治療實驗將證明此理論是否能受到臨床實證支持. 克服許多有效免疫療法的臨床發展的障礙有著極大挑戰, 諸如單一患者及患者之間的癌症異質性. 對免疫基因治療而言, 除了有效率的和指定基因轉移還有可持續性, 長期穩定治療基因顯現對臨床試驗成敗是不可或缺的. 對預防接腫而言, 現今多數疫苗只限定給符合單型組織配對抗原患者或自體移植物質為根基的患者, 因此製造複雜. 一般疫苗能用於多數患者, 但是在近期內還尚未認可參考資料： Me