深白色 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

翻譯醫學英文的高手→CLL

Abstract:

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unique among malignancies since it represents an accumulation of B-lymphocytes resistant to apoptosis. Several factors are thought to confer this unusual feature to a CLL B-cell. Misbalance between cytoplasmic pro-survival and pro-death molecules, such as Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and alike, appears to be one of the key factors defining B-cell longevity.

Autocrine pathways, such as vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor pathway, also contribute to survival. The role of B-cell receptor (BCR) is less straightforward. In the last decade it became clear that CLL does not constitute a uniform disease, but, based on the prevalence of mutations in the BCR heavy chain (IgVH), can be classified into two distinct subgroups.

Several molecular markers correlate with IgVH mutations. Some of them, like zeta-chain associated protein kinase, are also involved in BCR signaling and influence cell cycle. Yet the primary pathogenic event leading to increased proliferation and survival in CLL is difficult to ascertain. Molecules involved in BCR signaling pathways and cytoplasmic pro-survival players probably act in concert to confer resistance to apoptosis.

In this respect, the role of the B-CLL environment, which includes nurse-like cells and T-cells, cannot be underestimated. Nurse-like cells provide stimuli necessary for perpetuation of life in CLL.

On the other hand, abnormal T-cell function, whether it is excessive immunosuppression delivered by regulatory T-cells or insufficient anti-tumor immunity rendered by Thelpers, allows malignant CLL cells to go unnoticed by the cellular immune system.

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  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    摘要:

    因為會有具抵抗細胞凋亡的B淋巴球的堆積情況發生,慢性淋巴球白血病(CCL)對於惡性腫瘤來說是獨特的。被視為產生這些不尋常CCL B-cell的特殊特性的一些因素。細胞內的前存活和前死亡分子(比如說Bcl-2, Mcl-1跟一些類似物)之間的不平衡似乎是其中一項導致B-cell如此長壽的重要原因。

    自泌的pathways,比如說血管內皮生長因子-受體之間的pathway,也對於B-cell的生存有所貢獻。因為在最近十年中發現CLL並非由單一疾病所導致的,因此B-cell受體(BCR)的角色越來越不明確。並且基於普遍上BCR上重鏈(IgVH)上的突變,可以將之分為兩種不同的亞型。

    一些分子標記用來分辨IgVH的突變。其中一些,比如說和zeta-鍵有關的蛋白質激酶,也和BCR的標記有關,而且也會影響細胞週期。主要的導致(B cell)增生及持續存在的病理情況在CLL是很難查明的。利用和BCR標記相關分子的pathway以及細胞質內前存活的分子很有可能和有抵抗細胞凋亡的能力有關。

    在這篇中,B-CLL的環境,包括T cell及nurse-like cells,都是不能被低估的。nurse-like cells提供了CLL(B cell)不死所必要的刺激。

    另一方面,不正常的T cell功能,不論是rT cell過度的免疫抑制作用,還是T helper細胞的抗癌力不足,都有可能造成惡性的CLL細胞被免疫系統所忽略。

    裡面pro-survival 跟pro-death 不太會翻

    不過醫學院的人應該知道意思吧

    參考資料: 自己
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