This chapter is concerned with the interconnections between these various flows and the shaped that they take, and with the resulting economic and social organisation of particular towns, cities and regions especially within Britain. I shall presume the following. First, these flows in part derive from very particular places from which in a sense they derive-such as the financial flows which in the British case stem from the history, traditions and spatial from of the ‘square mile’ of the City of London(Lash and Urry 1994: CH. 11).
Second, these flows impact upon particular towns and cities in often unexpected and counter-intuitive ways. There are many different kinds of flow as we have seen and the impact of their non-isomorphic shapes can produce distinct non-homogenised outcomes in particular places (see Bagguley et al. 1990).
Third, the effect of globalization is often to increase local distinctiveness for one or more of the following reasons: the increased ability of large companies to subdivide their operations and to locate different activities within different labour markets located in different societies (see discussion in Bagguley et al. 1990); the breaking up of previously relatively coherent regional economies; the competition between local states for jobs, the growth of international differences and the localizing of regional policy (see discussion in Harloe et al. 1990); the decreasing tendency for voting patterns to be nationally determined and the increased importance of ‘neighbourhood’ effects; the enduring significance of symbols of place and location particularly with the decline in the popularity of the international modern style of architecture and the emergence of local and vernacular styles; and the resurgence of locally oriented culture and politics especially around campaigns for the conservation of the built and physical environment.
Robins effectively summarises:
- 1 0 年前最佳解答
您文章第一句中有"these various flows".表示在之前已提過flows是什麼.若您需要幫忙?煩請提供一些背景知識.
2007-03-29 17:05:59 補充：
在本章節中我們將接著討論前述不同流動種類彼此之間是如何交互影響與其互動的模式,以及因此對特定鄉村城市或區域社會結構與經濟體系所造成的影響,特別是在英國的部份.在繼續討論之前,我們需有以下的假設:首先,部份流動種類之源頭本身極具特殊性.以英國為例,其資本流動(金流)主要來自倫敦市中心這塊一英哩見方地區所發展出之歷史與傳統(Lash and Urry 1994: CH. 11).
其次,這些流動對於特定鄉村和城市的影響方式通常是意料之外且超乎常理的.我們觀察到許多型態的流動,在一些地區這些在結構上來說完全不同的互動方式會發展出截然不同結果.(see Bagguley et al. 1990).第三,由於以下原因,不論是單一的或是多重的,全球化的結果通常加深了地區性的差異:大型的公司愈來愈有能力將作業或生產進一步加以分工,並且將不同的公司活動分散在位於不同社會中不同的勞動市場(see discussion in Bagguley et al. 1990);原先較為緊密的地區性經濟體發生崩解;各個政體間之就業競爭,對於國際上差異需求的增加,同時不同的區域需要在地化的規範(see discussion in Harloe et al. 1990;以國家民族為主要考量的投票傾向逐漸式微,且天涯若比鄰的效果持續發酵;具地方特色的訴求愈來愈重要,而國際化現代化建築設計愈來愈不受歡迎,愈來愈重視地方性色彩;在地導向的文化與政治再度浮上檯面,特別是當地建築與環境保護活動的出現.
- 1 0 年前