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王大寶 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

中翻英拜託拜託很急(不要用Dr.eye)謝謝

(這是一篇演講內容,也幫我定一個題目,英文的喔謝謝)

今天要告訴大家是有關香水的事,現代人絕對不能沒有香水,但是要再對的時間使用,盡量可以搭配到當時的情況下使用是最好的。首先要先敘述一下香水的歷史

談起"香水的歷史",可以說和人類的歷史一樣悠久.早在西元前4000年,人類就懂得"香料"的製作過程.古埃及,美索不達米亞,印度,中國等古老文獻或遺物中,都有記載.埃及人和阿拉伯人對於"香料"的知識與使用,更是專精,而阿拉伯人為求長生不老,在蒸餾過程上的改革,對日後的香水工業,更是有著不可磨滅的貢獻.

中世紀的義大利,法國已經有所謂的香水專家,但香水製造大多操在神職人員的手中.法國人更是出了名的習慣用香水,香粉遮掩體臭.

"現代香水業"是在德國的實驗室裡發展出來的,德國人不僅對於天然香味的結構與香味混合,重要成分綜合有精密的研究,更製造出人工香料.它的新穎香味使香水的調香配方跨出了新的步伐. 香水主要由香精、酒精和水構成。香精是其中的核心部分

香水在女性間造成流行,是在法國路易十四時代,到了20世紀,香水更是與女性的日常生活息息相關.香味有它的流行,每個時代喜愛的香味正反應了當代的精神.它並非由人為硬性規範而來,而是自然產生.以近21世紀的90年代為例,"中性香水"的流行,正是現代兩性角色愈來愈柔和的印證,香味既剛也柔的中性香水,男女皆宜,開啟了香水的新紀元.

參考資料 http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/Opera/9206/netw10....

如何正確使用香水

擦香水是國際禮儀之一

在歐美國家香水的使用頻率很高,擦香水不但是一種習慣,更被視為是一種禮貌及基本社交禮儀,不僅僅是女生,男生也是如此。反觀目前台灣民眾使用香水的習慣則仍處於比較被動的情況,往往都是因為有人送了一瓶香水,收藏了很久,不捨得也不知如何使用…

有關使用香水的使用時機與基本的使用方法,現在就讓我們來做個基本了解。同時更提醒大家一些使用上的注意事項,讓大家都可以更加安心且適當地使用

香水:

* 不要用過量香水,因而引來異樣眼光讓自己不自在。

* 腋下及汗線發達易出汗部位,請勿使用香水。應改用體香劑、體香膏。

* 勿將香水噴灑於珍珠飾品、白色衣物、皮件、名貴手錶上,以避免留下污漬。

* 勿將香水噴於頭髮上,因為香水中的酒精易傷害髮質。

* 香水正確的使用方法~距離身體20-30公分,直接噴灑讓香氣均勻附著。

* 香精正確的使用方法~建議使用沾式香精,並利用瓶蓋沾取少量香精擦拭。

* 白天、工作場合、夏日氣溫較高。宜使用氣味清淡,自然的花香、果香、柑橘等之香調。

* 冬天、晚間、宴會場合則不妨選擇稍濃郁一些之香調或使用濃度較高的香精。

* 特殊場合,如探病時不要噴灑香水。

*香水與身體系列產品搭配使用,可使香味更持久。

什麼是香水的調調?這指得當然是香水的濃度標準與香味的基調囉!

依據不同的濃度標準,就有不同的香水定位。一般說來,香水的濃度含量主要有5個等級,區分如下:

1.香精(Parfume)

濃度在20%以上,是香水中的貴族,香味持續力約為6-8小時

2.香水(Eau de Parfume)

香精濃度約在10-20%之間,價格屬中等價位,比較大眾化,廣泛被使用,所以才會以香水戴稱所有的香水種類,而不是香精。持續力約4小時左右,通常簡稱為E.D.P。

3.淡香水(Eau de Toilette)

濃度約在12-5%之間,因此價格最便宜,不過持續力最差,大約只有2-3小時,多使用於沐浴之後。從這個等級開始才有較多的男性香水。

4.古龍水(Eau de Cologen)

是男性香水的一般等級,至於女性香水在這個階段已經很少見了。古龍水的濃度只有6-3%,香味持續力約只有一、兩個小時左右。

5.清香水(Eau Fraiche)

香精含量非常的低,約只有1-2%,似乎已經不被劃歸在香水的範圍內,上市的體香劑、鬍後水都屬於這個等級,香味的持續力非常的短。

搭配使用,可使香味更持久。

順便一提,還有再給大家兩個小方法,如果有放很多年的香水的話,我想大概已經過期了,沒辦法在噴到身體上了,所以,還有以個方法可以給你們作參考。第一,你可以把過期的香水噴在家裡的燈上,這樣一來,開燈時,香水會因為燈管的散熱而發出香味。第二個方法,可以噴在黑色衣服上,這樣一來不怕衣服會變色貨變質,反而會有香香的味道喔。

2 個解答

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  • ?
    Lv 5
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    (Parfume 是法文的拼法, perfume才是英文, 香水的統稱是fragrance, perfume 是其中的一種),

    Today I would like to talk about perfume. Nowadays, perfume is so

    essential that it becomes part of our lives. However, it has to be applied

    at the right place at the right time. Most importantly, it is best to be

    applied according to different situations.

    First, I would like to talk about the history of perfume. Human has a

    long history in making perfume. Perfume can be found in ancient Egyt,

    Mesopotamia, India and China, all these ancient countries. It has first

    been used 4000 years ago by Egyptian during Egypt's eighteenth dynasty (Foster, 1966:11) as part of their religious rituals. The use of perfume

    then spread to Greece, Rome, and the Islamic world. And it was the

    Islamic community that kept the use of perfumes. The ancient Egytians

    and Arabs were among the first users who could produce perfume

    through the complicated distilled process. Perfume was to undergo

    profound change as a result of pursuing eternity among ancient Arabs.

    Therefore, the ancient Arabs made huge contributions in the history of

    perfume.

    Perfume enjoyed huge success during the seventeenth century. Perfumed gloves became popular in France and in 1656, the guild of glove and perfume-makers was established. The use of perfume in France grew steadily. The court of Louis XV was even named "the perfumed court" due to the scents which were applied daily not only to the skin but also to clothing, fans and furniture.

    The eighteenth century saw a revolutionary advance in perfumery with

    the invention of eau de Cologne. This refreshing blend of rosemary,

    neroli, bergamot and lemon was used in a multitude of different ways:

    diluted in bath water, mixed with wine, eaten on a sugar lump, as a

    mouthwash, an enema or an ingredient for a poultice, injected directly... and so on.

    (to be continued太長了, 下面繼續)

    2007-04-15 21:43:22 補充:

    The technology that we use nowadays was developed by the Germans. Modern perfumes seldom contain the 'essential oils' of either animal or

    flower. The Germans' advances in chemistry provided synthetic substitutions.

    (太長, 待續)

    2007-04-15 21:44:23 補充:

    Synthetic scents would decrease the cost and perhaps value of perfumes. French perfumers were wary of the new synthetic scents primarily due the threat to the essential oil business (Genders, 1972:186).

    (太長, 待續)

    2007-04-15 21:45:02 補充:

    For much of the twentieth century, the French perfumers have been regarded as producing excellent perfumes. This image was threatened with the advent of synthetic perfumes. (太長, 待續)

    2007-04-15 21:45:20 補充:

    In addition, the French feared that synthetic processes would corrupt the art of perfume making and the long held prestige of the perfumer Gender, 1972:186).

    (太長, 待續)

    2007-04-15 21:45:48 補充:

    Synthetic perfumes have contributed to the rise of commercially available perfumes for the mass market. They have allowed all economic areas of society to possess scents (of various economic value).

    (太長, 待續)

    2007-04-15 21:46:02 補充:

    The advent of the synthetic coupled with the automation of glass manufacturing has made perfume accessible to a wide range of the population.

    2007-04-15 21:46:15 補充:

    At the turn of the twentieth century, perfume was considered a luxury item and women had a reverend attitude towards it. Before 1973, few women wore perfume on a regular basis. Gradullay, it becomes widely used in women, thanks for the advertisments and marketing strategy.

    2007-04-15 21:46:42 補充:

    Later, perfume can be identified as masculine or feminine because there is an increase demand from men. During the early 1990's, the newly introduced unisex fragrances are unanimously housed in the same type of container.

    2007-04-15 21:46:47 補充:

    This is an indication that masculinity and femininity have been complemented into one form. (reference to http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/Opera/9206/netw10....

    2007-04-15 22:01:12 補充:

    Tips for Wearing Perfume

    Perfume is so popular in Western cultures and it becomes part of the daily social life for both men and ladies. However, it is not as common in Asians and Taiwanese people are not buying perfumes actively, but rather receive them as a gift.

    2007-04-15 22:04:58 補充:

    There are quite a few people who do not know how to apply perfumes, which would then be left untouched. Now is the chance for me to give you more information on this. I hope that it helps you to wear perfume easily and safely.

    2007-04-15 22:14:05 補充:

    * Please do not wear excessive perfumes on your body, because it might be too strong for others

    * Do not apply perfumes on your underarms, please use anti-perspirant & deodorant instead.

    * Do not apply perfumes directly on jewellery, clothes, leather or watches, as it will leave stains.

    2007-04-15 22:15:02 補充:

    * Do not apply perfumes directly on hair, because its alcohol ingredient is harmful.

    2007-04-15 22:15:09 補充:

    * The best way to apply perfumes, is to spray them from a distance of 20 to 30 centimeters as if you walk straight into the perfume. This helps to diffuse it over your body. Or apply them to pulse points such as the folds in the crook of your elbow and back of knees, wrist, neck and cleavage.

    2007-04-15 22:22:35 補充:

    * It's alo recommended to apply perfumes by dabbing instead of spray. This would use less amount of perfumes.

    * During the day or summer time, it's better to use lightly scented perfumes, such as natural flower or fruits fragrance.

    2007-04-15 22:30:49 補充:

    * During the winter or night time, or for special occasions, perfumes with stronger aroma can be applied.

    * Do not wear perfumes when you are visiting in the hospitals as this might trigger allergic reactions in some people

    2007-04-15 22:31:01 補充:

    * Consider layering perfumes. Use all the same perfume in various products. Begin with shower or bath gel and then rub in body lotion or spray with a matching after bath spray.

    2007-04-15 22:32:27 補充:

    What Is Perfume Made From?

    Perfume is made from about 78% to 95% of specially denatured ethyl alcohol and a remainder of essential oils.

    2007-04-15 22:34:12 補充:

    It can be identified in 5 categories:

    1. Perfume is the costliest form of fragrance with 22% of essential oils. It can last up to 6 to 8 hours when apply.

    2007-04-15 22:36:10 補充:

    2. Eau de Parfum (EDP), comes next with between 15 and 20% essential oils. It is the most common fragrance being used by the majority and it comes with a more affordable price tag. It usually lasts for about 4 hours.

    2007-04-15 22:38:52 補充:

    3. Eau de Toilette (EDT) comes next with 8 to 15% oils. It only lasts for about 2 to 3 hours and mainly use after bath. You will see more fragrance made for men in this category.

    2007-04-15 22:40:32 補充:

    4. Eau de Cologne has just around 4% essential oils. This fragance is mainly designed for men and it lasts only for about an hour or so.

    2007-04-15 22:43:57 補充:

    5. Eau Fraiche with 1 to 3% essential oils, is the lightest dilution of fragrance. It can be found in deodorant and after-shave lotion. It only lasts for a short time.

    2007-04-15 22:45:42 補充:

    If the perfume is left unopened or untouched for a long time, it is already expired. There are two simple tips for you to save on them.

    2007-04-15 23:03:39 補充:

    Since the expired perfumes cannot be used on your body anymore, you can use them on other things. You can spray it on your lighting, the scent will diffuse when it's heated. Also you can spray it on your black clothes, so your clothes always smell good without any color damage on them.

    2007-04-15 23:04:51 補充:

    終於翻譯完成!!!

    參考資料: , 在多倫多住了14年, 在這裡唸中學以及大學
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  • 1 0 年前

    Today must tell everybody is the related perfume matter, the modern

    people 絕 to cannot not have the perfume, but must again to the time

    use, was allowed to match as far as possible to then situation in the

    use is best. First must first narrate the perfume history to mention

    "the perfume historical", may mediate humanity's history to be equally

    glorious As early as in the A.D. previous in 4000, the humanity

    understands "spice" the manufacture process Ancient Egypt, the

    beautiful rope does not reach Mia aircraft, India, China and so on in

    the ancient literature or the relic, all has the record The Egyptian

    and the Arab regarding "the spice" knowledge and the use, are is

    expert in, but Arab artificial strives for the immortality, in the

    distillation process reform, to in the future perfume industry, will

    be has the indelible contribution

    Middle ages Italy, France already had the so-called perfume expert,

    but the perfume manufacture mostly held in clergy's hand The French

    is the custom habitually using perfume which became famous, the face

    powder obstructs the bunker to be smelly

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