大頭 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

行政學之名詞解釋

1.非正式組織 informal organization

2.目標錯置 goal displacement

3.行政行為 administrative performance

4.沉澱成本 sunk cost

5.global governance

已更新項目:

有中文的嗎?

謝謝^^

1 個解答

評分
  • pearl
    Lv 7
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    找到幾個:

    1.非正式組織 informal organization:

    The informal organization is the interlocking social structures of how

    people who share a common organizational affiliation or cluster of

    affiliations do and do not work together in practice. It is the aggregate

    of behaviors, interactions, norms, personal and professional

    connections through which work gets done and relationships are built.

    The informal organization evolves organically and

    spontaneously - much like a market - in response to changes in the

    work environment, the flux of people through its porous boundaries,

    and the complex social dynamics of its members.

    2. 目標錯置 goal displacement:

    Goal attainment in organizations is maximized when goal displacement

    is minimal. Goal displacement is minimal where goals are tangible. If

    there is a high degree of goal intangibility, goal attainment can still be

    maximized by keeping tangible goals directed toward the central

    intangible goals, but it is reduced by displacing tangible goals to

    peripheral goals of system maintenance.

    3. 行政行為 administrative performance:

    4. 沉沒(澱)成本 sunk cost:

    In economics and in business decision-making, sunk costs are costs

    that have already been incurred and which cannot be recovered to any

    significant degree.

    5. 全球管理/治理 global governance :

    the complex of formal and informal institutions, mechanisms,

    relationships, and processes between and among states, markets,

    citizens and organizations, both inter- and non-governmental, through

    which collective interests on the global plane are articulated, rights and

    obligations are established, and differences are mediated.

    希望對你有幫助喔!

還有問題?馬上發問,尋求解答。