1.非正式組織 informal organization
2.目標錯置 goal displacement
3.行政行為 administrative performance
4.沉澱成本 sunk cost
- pearlLv 71 0 年前最佳解答
1.非正式組織 informal organization:
The informal organization is the interlocking social structures of how
people who share a common organizational affiliation or cluster of
affiliations do and do not work together in practice. It is the aggregate
of behaviors, interactions, norms, personal and professional
connections through which work gets done and relationships are built.
The informal organization evolves organically and
spontaneously - much like a market - in response to changes in the
work environment, the flux of people through its porous boundaries,
and the complex social dynamics of its members.
2. 目標錯置 goal displacement:
Goal attainment in organizations is maximized when goal displacement
is minimal. Goal displacement is minimal where goals are tangible. If
there is a high degree of goal intangibility, goal attainment can still be
maximized by keeping tangible goals directed toward the central
intangible goals, but it is reduced by displacing tangible goals to
peripheral goals of system maintenance.
3. 行政行為 administrative performance:
4. 沉沒(澱)成本 sunk cost:
In economics and in business decision-making, sunk costs are costs
that have already been incurred and which cannot be recovered to any
5. 全球管理/治理 global governance :
the complex of formal and informal institutions, mechanisms,
relationships, and processes between and among states, markets,
citizens and organizations, both inter- and non-governmental, through
which collective interests on the global plane are articulated, rights and
obligations are established, and differences are mediated.