jay 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

請問有誰可以幫忙翻譯(英翻中)文字內容

請幫忙翻成中文......謝謝^^

In Practice

in the early 1990s, imperial Oil's R&D was a monopoly service provider

allocated an annual budget of about $45 million. imperial Oil felt that this

method of operating gave the 200 scientists and staff little incentive to

control costs or advance quality.

Today, R&D receives a much smaller budget and essentially supports

itself through applied research and lab-services contracts negotiated

with internal and external customers .Contracts spell out the costs of

each program, analysis, or other service, and cost-conscious imperial-Oil

managers can shop for lower prices among external labs.

R&D has even introduced competition within its own small unit. For

example, research teams are free to buy some lab services outside the company if they feel their own laboratories are overpriced or inefficient. However, quality and efficiency have dramatically improved at imperial Oil's R&D, and the unit's high-quality, low-cost services are attracting a great deal of business from outside the company. Canadian companies routinely send samples of used motor oil to the R&D labs for analysis. Manufacturers use R&D to autopsy equipment failures. Vehicle makers like General Motors and Ford test new engines at Imperial Oil's R&D's chassis dynamometer lab. According to John Charlton, Imperial Oil's corporate strategic planning manager, applying market control to R&D has led to an increase in the amount of work the unit does, as well as a 12 percent reduction in internal costs.

3 個解答

評分
  • 偉敦
    Lv 6
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    在1990年化初期,皇家石油(這是一家公司)的研發是可取得年預算4500萬元的獨佔性服務...皇家石油以此法激勵200位科學家和職員加強成本控制及提高品質..現在研發的預算較以往少,且需對內在和外在的客戶透過更實用的研究和實驗服務合約以自我支持(指支持研發)合約中詳述各種問題及分析或其他服務的收費,成本概念的皇家石油管理階層也會用較低的價格以外部實驗室來購買(買研究)...研發已演變為自己小單位間的激烈競爭...

    例如,在研發期間中若他們認為自己的研究比公司外的研究服務成本高,或服務低時,可自由去委託其研究.....然而皇家石油的研發己在品質和效率得到極大改善,並且高單位品質及低單位成本的服務已由公司外部吸引了極大的商機。加拿大的企業定期地寄發用過的機油樣品給研發實驗室分析。廠商利用研發去分析設備的問題。如通用及福特汽車廠也會在皇家石油的研發效率實驗室中測試新引擎。

    皇家石油企業策略計劃的管理階層應用研發去控制市場,已使單位工作總產出提高,並使內部成本下降12%。

    參考資料: 自已.....
  • 1 0 年前

    實務

    90年代,Imperial Oil公司的R&D(研發部門)在提供服務上享有獨佔的地位,該部門的年度預算大約4千5百萬美元。Imperial Oil認為這種營運模式對部門內200位科學家與職員來說,缺乏控制成本或提升品質的誘因。

    今天,研發部門分配到的預算更少了,該部門主要透過可實際應用的研究,以及與內部或外部顧客簽訂實驗室服務合約來支持自己。合約上清楚記載每項計畫、分析或其他服務的收費,深具成本意識的Imperial Oil公司經理人可以較低的價格向外部實驗室購買。R&D甚至在自己內部讓各單位相互競爭,例如研究小組如果認為自己的實驗室定價過高或缺乏效率,他們可以向公司外部的實驗室購買服務。然而事實上,Imperial Oil公司研發部門的品質和效率獲得了大幅的改善,該部門的高品質低收費服務吸引了許多來自其他公司的業務。加拿大的公司定期寄發使用過的機油樣品請R&D實驗室分析,製造商請R&D檢驗設備故障,汽車製造商如通用汽車和福特使用Imperial Oil R&D的底盤功率計實驗室測試新引擎。根據Imperial Oil公司的企業策略規劃經理John Charlton所述,對R&D施行市場控制使得該部門的產出增加,同時內部成本下降了12%。

    參考資料: me
  • 1 0 年前

    這是商業單字,加油吧!

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