專業醫護翻譯<二>(勿用翻譯軟體直接翻譯 - 10點)
The development of an atherosclerotic plaque indicates an advanced stage in the atherosclerotic process and results from death and rupture of the lipid-laden foam cells in the fatty streak. Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to the tunica intima and laying down of collagen fibres results in the formation of a protective fibrous cap over the lipid core. The fibrous cap is a crucial component of the mature atherosclerotic plaque as it separates the highly thrombogenic lipid-rich core from circulating platelets and other coagulation factors. Stable atherosclerotic plaques are characterised by a necrotic lipid core covered by a thick VSM-rich fibrous cap. Lesions expand at the shoulders by continued leucocyte adhesion.
An atherosclerotic plaque may cause complications as a result of its size, reducing lumen diameter and blood flow, its tendency to rupture, or following its erosion. Plaque erosion or rupture occur in plaques that are intrinsically vulnerable. Factors that may influence their vulnerability include hypertension, high turbulent blood flow, an increased number of inflammatory cells, a lipid-rich core and a thin fibrous cap with few smooth muscle cells or collagen fibres. Both erosion and rupture can lead to thrombus formation on the site of the plaque and vessel occlusion. Plaque formation can also cause hardening of the arteries, resulting in weakening and thinning of the vessel wall, leading to aneurysm and possibly haemorrhage.1
Regression of atherosclerotic plaques may occur with lipid-modifying therapy and with dietary and lifestyle changes.
Unstable fibrous plaques in atherosclerosis are prone to rupture and ulceration, followed by rapid development of thrombi. Rupture usually occurs at sites of thinning and is associated with regions where there is greater influx and activation of macrophages, accompanied by release of metalloproteinases.
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4.開發一個粥樣斑塊表明了後期的動脈粥樣硬化過程和結果從死亡和破裂. 對脂泡沫細胞中的脂肪斑紋. 遷移血管平滑肌細胞(VSMCs)的內膜和放下膠原纖維結果在 形成一個保護性纖維帽的脂質核心. 纖維帽是一個重要組成部分,成熟的粥樣硬化斑塊,因為它割裂了高度thrombogenic脂肪豐富的核心 從循環的血小板和其它凝血因子. 穩定粥樣硬化斑塊的特點是脂質壞死核心一層厚厚的VSM富含纖維帽. 病變擴大在肩上的持續白細胞黏附.
5.一個斑塊可能引起並發症,由於其規模,減少管腔直徑和血流, 走向破裂,或以下的侵蝕. 牙菌斑侵蝕或破裂發生於骨灰,具有內在的脆弱. 因素,有可能影響他們的脆弱性,包括高血壓,高血液湍流,有越來越多的發炎細胞 一種脂質豐富的核心和薄纖維帽的少數平滑肌細胞或膠原纖維. 雙方的侵蝕和破裂可導致血栓的形成對網站的斑塊和血管阻塞. 斑塊的形成也可以引起血管硬化,以致削弱和減薄管壁, 通往瘤可能haemorrhage.1
不穩定的纖維斑塊在動脈粥樣硬化,容易破裂及潰瘍,隨後迅速發展thrombi. 斷裂通常發生地點變薄而與地方有更大的湧入,激活 巨噬細胞,陪同釋放金屬.參考資料： 無