maggy 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

誰能幫我翻譯這一段英文,謝謝!

In 1986, World Health Organization stated that empowerment served as the core guidance for the health promotion plan in the Ottawa Charter. Empowerment is defined as a process or a result of giving official or legal power, giving authority, endowing with ability, or enabling (Rodwell, 1996). It originated from the “social movement” of the 1960s, and developed into rising awareness of selfhelp in the 1970s (Gibson, 1991), which was broadly applied to minority groups and professions. Empowerment serves the same purpose in nursing. Man (2002) concluded that to those caregivers with family members suffering from brain injury and frustrated by novel, unpredictable or global disease problems, the process of empowerment served as a trigger to improve their abilities for handling problems better. In Persson, Rasmusson, and Hallberg’s research (1998), facing the ongoing emotional and physical pain and suffering while taking care of a spouse’s disease, caregivers who were experiencing extreme feeling of powerlessness struggled to empower themselves. Both researches highlighted that suffering may empower caregivers to develop positive power to help handle the difficulties. In other words, once awareness of empowerment is inspired, individuals could upgrade their abilities to satisfy needs, overcome problems, and mobilize the necessary resources to manage their environment. In Taiwan, few researches explored the empowerment process of the caregivers for patients with dementia. It is questionable if the results from western research can explain the experience of caregivers of elders with dementia, who are deeply influenced by traditional oriental cultures. Leininger (1991) reminded that all cultures develop their own care behaviors, beliefs and practices. Therefore, it is necessary to develop conceptual knowledge related to the empowerment process for caregivers of elderly with dementia in Taiwan.

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  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    1986 年, 世界衛生組織闡明, empowerment 起核心教導作用對於健康促進計劃在渥太華憲章。Empowerment 被定義作為過程或給正式或法律權力的結果, 給當局, 擁有能力, 或使能(Rodwell 1996) 。它起源於"社會運動" 60 年代, 和顯現了出成selfhelp 的上升的了悟在70 年代(Gibson 1991), 嚮少數民族和行業寬廣地被應用。Empowerment 為同樣目的服務在護理。人(2002) 認為, 對那些照料者以家庭成員遭受腦傷和由新穎挫敗, 變化莫測或全球性疾病問題, empowerment 的過程擔當觸發器改進他們的能力為處理更好問題。在Persson 、Rasmusson, 和Hallberg 的研究(1998), 面對持續的情感和物理痛苦和遭受當照顧配偶的疾病的, 體驗無力的極端感覺的照料者奮鬥授權自己。兩個研究突出那痛苦也許授權照料者發展正面力量幫助處理困難。換句話說, 一旦empowerment 的了悟被_發, 個體能升級他們的能力滿足需要, 克服問題, 和動員必要的資源處理他們的環境。在臺灣, 少數研究探索了照料者的empowerment 過程為有老年癡呆病人。這是值得懷疑如果結果從西部研究可能解釋長輩的照料者的經驗以老年癡呆, 被傳統東方文化深深地影響。Leininger (1991) 提醒, 所有文化開發他們自己的關心行為、信仰和實踐。所以, 它是必要開發概念性知識與empowerment 過程有關為年長的人的照料者以老年癡呆在臺灣。

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  • 匿名使用者
    6 年前

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  • 1 0 年前

    真正有實力的人不會回應你的要求﹔因為你的發問內容違反了"知識+"的規則(標題過

    於籠統含糊而且含大量翻譯內容, 請參考

    http://tw.help.yahoo.com/know/question/question-19...

    我們即使回答了你的發問﹐而且也被選為最佳答案之後, 你的版面遲早還是會遭到管理員移除﹐移除後﹐我們的記錄就被一筆勾銷﹔你如果想獲得高品質的翻譯﹐請和我聯絡﹐我會給你變通的建議。

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