Eric 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

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Conversational maxims

In addition to background beliefs, the setting, and the discourse, there is at least one other major type of information that enters into the interpretation of utterances. This information has to do with the ‘rules for conversation’ —our understanding of how language is used in particular situations to convey a message. For example, if ask you, ‘Would you like go to a movie tonight﹖’and you respond by saying, ‘I have to study for an exam’, I know that you are declining my invitation even though there is nothing in the literal meaning of the sentence that says so. Moreover, I recognize that this is a perfectly appropriate way to respond.( Notice that the same could not be said of a respond like ‘I have to scratch my arm’ or ‘It’s a bit warm in here’. )

As speakers of a language, we are able to draw inferences about what is meant but not actually said. Information that is conveyed in this way is called conversational implicature. The ease with which we recognize and interpret implicature stems from our knowledge of how people in our linguistic community use language to communicate with each other.

The general overarching guideline for conversational interactions is often called the Cooperative Principle.

(50)The Cooperative Principle

Make your contribution appropriate to the conversation.

More specific maxims or guidelines ensure that conversational interactions actually satisfy the Cooperative Principle as shown in table 6.18 on page 203. These maxims are responsible for regulating normal conversation but, as we will see, each can be suspended under certain circumstances to create particular effects.

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  • 1 0 年前
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    會話格言

    除背景信仰之外,設置和演講,那裡是加入話語的解釋信息的至少的其他一個主要類型。 這信息必須處理`規則為交談』 -我們的理解對怎樣語言特別是表達消息的半新情況。 例如,如果要求您, `您要不要今晚去電影﹖』,并且您通過說,我必須為檢查學習』的`反應,我知道您拒?我的邀請,即使沒什麼在如此認為句子的逐字意思。 而且,我認為這是一個完全適當的方式反應。(通知同樣不可能說一反應像我必須抓我的胳膊』的`或`它有點兒溫暖在這裡』。 )

    作為語言的演講人,我們能畫推斷關於什麼意味,但不實際上說。 表達這樣的信息稱會話implicature。 我們認可并且解釋implicature的舒適源於我們的知識怎樣人們在我們的語言區使用語言與彼此聯絡。

    一般成拱形的指南為會話式的交互作用經常稱合作原則。

    (50)合作原則

    做您的貢獻適當到交談。

    更加具體的格言或指南保證會話式的交互作用在第203頁實際上滿足合作原則如表6.18所顯示。 這些格言負責對調控正常交談,但,因為我們將看見,中的每一可以暫停在某些情況之下創造特殊作用。

    參考資料: 自己
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