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人面獅身像通常指由獅子身軀與人頭結成一體的神話中的怪獸或神聖動物的雕像。音譯爲「斯芬克斯」。最早産生于埃及古王國時代(約西元前2686~前2181),以後流傳於北非、希臘、西亞等地。希臘原文「斯芬克斯」語源不清,有人認爲由希臘文「束縛」一詞派生,但更可能源于古埃及語,意爲「栩栩如生的雕像」。

人面獅身像規格大小不一,小者1米左右,大者可達幾十米。埃及最早、也是最大的人面獅身像是坐落在吉薩的第4王朝哈夫拉王金字塔前的大人面獅身像。該像除兩前爪用粗石堆砌外,整個身軀是用一塊完整的巨石雕成的,高約20米,全長57米。其頭部塑有國王頭飾,前額雕出標誌王權的蛇像,下頜有鬍鬚,面部特徵是哈夫拉王肖像的理想化。這一雕像同金字塔相結合,既作爲神像讓人崇拜,又象徵著國王的智慧和力量,是埃及著名的古迹之一。

中王朝時,出現了肩披鬃毛的獅身人首的國王雕像。新王國時代人面獅身像廣泛流傳,在王陵和廟宇的通道兩旁,常並列數目不一的獅身人面像。卡納克遺址的「斯芬克斯大道」(或稱「神聖之道」)即屬這一時期。新王國時代的埃及文獻中,通常稱人面獅身像爲「地平線中的何露斯」或「地平線的何露斯」(何露斯是隼鷹形象的國王保護神)。這些人面獅身像,作爲地平線的保護人,象徵它以國王和神的雙重身份守衛著自己的殿堂、廟宇或墓地。這種雕像有時又作獅身公羊頭。卡納克遺址的阿蒙神廟大門前安置的公羊頭的斯芬克斯,意味著阿蒙神特爲自己的廟宇守衛,因爲阿蒙神常以公羊的形象出現。

大約在前1600年左右,在埃及的影響下,人面獅身像開始流傳於希臘和西亞等地,但通常附加兩隻翅膀,並換上女性的面孔,有別於埃及的獅身人面像。

花費兩百五十萬美元,歷時十年修復的埃及人面獅身像,於5月25日重新開放。埃及並為人面獅身像的揭幕舉行盛大慶祝典禮,由總統穆巴拉克與聯合國教科文組織執行長梅耶共同主持。此次修復工程即是由聯合國教科文組織負責監督完成。

人面獅身像大約在四千五百年建成,守護著開羅東南方的基沙金字塔。近代因為空氣污染、地下水增多,使得這座由石灰石磚建成的塑像嚴重損毀。而早在1940年代,就已經展開了修復人面獅身像的工作,1982年至1987年又陸續進行;但當時那種以石灰加灰泥糊住鬆動石塊的做法,只會加速石磚吸收潮氣、加速崩毀。

1989年,美國蓋帝研究所進行了六個月的初步調查後,正確的大規模修復工作終於在1990年展開。這次的修復共使用了一萬兩千多塊千磅重的白色石灰石(人面獅身像的原始材料),支撐住塑像的腹部、腿和爪,但並未動到塑像的面孔。

1998年5月25日,埃及總統穆巴拉克在開羅西郊主持盛大儀式,慶祝對獅身人面像歷時10年的修復工程全面竣工。

與金字塔並稱爲世界古代「七大奇蹟」之一的人面獅身像建於西元前27世紀,代表著古埃及的太陽神,相傳是專門護衛古埃及哈夫拉金字塔和周圍陵墓的。由於日曬、風沙等自然因素的作用,石像的胸部、脖頸和左前腿遭到強烈侵蝕。雖然最早的修復工作可追溯到西元前1400年,但前6次工程中技術與用料的失誤,使這個人類文明的瑰寶面臨倒塌的危險。

埃及最高文物委員會與聯合國教科文組織於1989年聯合派出考古專家、文物修復師和雕塑家,利用最現代化的技術,使用12478塊仿古磚,耗資250萬美元,以拯救飽經風霜的人面獅身像。

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  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    The sphinx usually means that is formed the statue of strange beast or sacred animal in the integrative mythology by lion's body and the number of people. Transliteration? ' Funckes then '. Initially? Born in Egypt ancient kingdom era ' About 2686 B.C.s- The first 2181) ,Spread in places such as north African, Greece, west Asia,etc. later. The Greek original text ' Funckes then ' is unclear in the language source, does anyone recognize? Is derived by a word of Greek ' fetters ', but may come from ancient Egyptian even more, purpose? ' vivid statue '.

    The sphinx specification comes in different sizes, the small one is about 1 meter, the big one can be up to dozens of meters. Egypt initially, located in 4 imperial court Haff of Sa Ji drawing lion's body picturing the adult in front of Wang Pyramid too. Will look like it except that two fore paws are piled up with the thick stone, the whole body will become with an intact huge stone carving, about 20 meters high, total length is 57 meters. Its head moulds king coronet, the forehead carves the snake picture which marks the royal power out, the lower jaw has beard, facial characteristic whether Haff draw to idealize portrait Wang. This statue is combined with Pyramid, have already done? Statue let people worship, symbolize intelligence and strength of king again, Egypt name ancient? The first.

    2007-10-16 00:26:40 補充:

    China in the imperial court, appear shoulder people of lion body King statue of head to wrap mane. The new kingdom era sphinx spreads extensively, on the passway both sides of emperor's tomb and temple, do not often stand side by side the figure in the sphinx of one.

    2007-10-16 00:28:27 補充:

    Carnac ' Funckes main road then ' of the site (or called the ' sacred way ') Belong to this period.

    2007-10-16 00:29:16 補充:

    In the Egyptian literature of times of new kingdom, usually call the sphinx? ' He LuSi in the horizon ' or ' He LuSi in the horizon ' (He LuSi is a patron saint of the King of falcon's hawk's image) . The sphinx, do?

    2007-10-16 00:29:31 補充:

    The guardian in the horizon, symbolize it with king and spirit's one's own palace, temple or graveyard of entrance guard of dual identity. The statue make lion body hair Gongyang again sometimes.

    2007-10-16 00:29:42 補充:

    Carnac's A of the site cheats Funckes then of one Gongyang that found a room for in front of the temple gate, mean A is indebted to the god specially? One's own temple entrance guard, the reason? A cover with god appear with image of Gongyang often.

    2007-10-16 00:29:50 補充:

    Probably in about the past 1600 years, under the influence of Egypt, the sphinx began to spread in places such as Greece and west Asia,etc., but usually add two wings, change women's face, is different from the sphinx of Egypt.

    2007-10-16 00:30:02 補充:

    Costs 2,500,000 dollars, is lasting the Egyptian sphinx repaired in ten years, reopen on May 25.

    2007-10-16 00:30:12 補充:

    Egypt combines the unveiling and holding the grand ceremony of celebrating of the surface lion's body picture, is presided over together by president Mubarak and plum of executive chairman of UNESCO. This recovery project is to make sure by UNESCO that is finished.

    2007-10-16 00:30:31 補充:

    The sphinx was probably built up in 4,500, defended the base sand Pyramid of the southeast of Cairo.

    2007-10-16 00:30:50 補充:

    Modern because the air pollution, groundwater increase, make this statue built up by lime stone brick damage seriously. And in 1940 times, have already launched repairing the work of the sphinx, went on successively from 1982 to 1987;

    2007-10-16 00:30:57 補充:

    But that kind added the plaster and pasted and became flexible the method of the stone with lime at that time, will only accelerate the stone brick and absorb the moisture, collapse with higher speed.

    2007-10-16 00:31:09 補充:

    1989, U.S.A. build emperor research institute go on after the six preliminary investigation for month, the correct extensive repair was launched in 1990 finally.

    2007-10-16 00:31:19 補充:

    Repair this time use 12,000 more than a thousand in weight pale lime stone together ' Primitive material of the sphinx) ,Support the belly, leg and claw of the statue, but has not moved to the face of the statue.

    2007-10-16 00:31:27 補充:

    On May 25, 1998, Egyptian president Mubarak presided over the grand ceremony in the western suburb of Cairo, celebrate that completes the recovery project for 10 of the sphinx in an all-round way.

    2007-10-16 00:31:49 補充:

    Called as jointly with Pyramid? The sphinx, one of ' seven major miracles ' was built in the 27th century B.C. in ancient times in the world, represent the ancient Egyptian Sun god, specially escort ancient Egyptian Chephren Pyramid and mausoleum around according to legend.

    2007-10-16 00:31:59 補充:

    Because of the function in natural factors such as drying in the sun, sand blown by the wind,etc., the chest, nape and left foreleg of the stone image are corroded strongly.

    2007-10-16 00:32:06 補充:

    Though the repair initially can trace back to 1400 B.C., the faults of technology and materials in the first 6 projects, danger of making the rarity of this human civilization face collapsing.

    2007-10-16 00:32:28 補充:

    Committee and UNESCO of supreme historical relic in Egypt jointly sent the archaeological expert, historical relic to repair teacher and sculptor in 1989, utilize the most modernized technology,

    2007-10-16 00:32:47 補充:

    use 12478 bricks in the style of the ancients, costs 2,500,000 dollars, in order to save the sphinx surviving in the hardship of life.

    參考資料: , 自己,導師,學長!
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