習得 學習 語言知識 語言行使
為什麼要用『習得』( acquire )來取代學習( learn )?
語言知識( linguistic competence )和語言行使( linguistic performance )有何差別?
- liz_1004Lv 51 0 年前最佳解答
Q1: 為什麼要用『習得』( acquire )來取代學習( learn )?
A1: 單單從字彙來看, "acquire" 與 "learn" 意思上稍有不同.
acquire: 獲得, 學到, 養成 (習慣等)
There is an important distinction made by linguists between language acquisition and language learning.
Children acquire language through a subconscious process during which they are unaware of grammatical rules. This is similar to the way they acquire their first language. They get a feel for what is and what isn’t correct. In order to acquire language, the learner needs a source of natural communication. The emphasis is on the text of the communication and not on the form.
Language learning as seen today, on the other hand, is not communicative. It is the result of direct instruction in the rules of language. In language learning, students have conscious knowledge of the new language and can talk about that knowledge. They can fill in the blanks on a grammar page. A student who has memorised the rules of the language may be able to succeed on a standardised test of English language but may not be able to speak or write correctly.
簡而言之, language acquisition (語言習得) 是指習得語言以用來溝通 (語言規則的習得是不自覺地), 而 language learning (語言學習) 是指專門習得語言規則, 但不見得能使用該語言溝通.
Note that the difference between "acquisition" and "learning" is a linguistic one. In everyday use, "learning a language" is more commonly seen/used than "acquiring a language".
Q2: 語言知識( linguistic competence )和語言行使( linguistic performance )有何差別?
A2: Linguistic competence (語言運用能力) 一詞為語言學家 Noam Chomsky 首先提出, 當時僅特指 "grammatical competence" (語法能力), 是指 "unconscious knowledge of possible grammatical structures in an idealised speaker". 後來用來意指一語言體系的知識，是指包括理解、組織、表達等的整體能力.
相對的, linguistic performance (語言表現) 是 "actual production and comprehension of language in specific instances of language use", 僅指使用語言時的表現或使用語言的展示, 一般簡單地分為聽說讀寫四大類.參考資料： myself