In addition to the technological changes, the effect of containerization on the conventional port system was manifested in two other avenues of impact: the spatial and the organizational. The Improved cargo-handling capabilities of the gantry crane compared with the conventional crane had an immediate impaction on the ratio between the length of a berth and the amount of back-up land. Typically, two to three acres of finger piers had delineated the conventional general cargo port. Container-handling being a space-demanding operation, the common size of terminals in most container ports in the 1980s mushroomed to five to six acres. The great demand for back-up space, together with the need to improve accessibility to inland transportation networks, soon necessitated the relocation of terminals—and rendered many port facilities obsolete. Expansion of the port proper was impossible if adjacent areas were already built up or otherwise designated for non-port activities, or if land acquisition costs were prohibitive. Container terminals, often finding it difficult to operate at the existing waterfront port, were then forced to move to the fringe of the urban area, where space was available, or even to relocate to an entirely new location. One way in which port authorities, particularly in Europe, have solved their need for more space is through downstream reclamation—the construction of wide, flat sites and the dredging of deep water alongside. The relocation of port facilities from London’s old docks to Tilbury can serve as an example. Other illustrations of this worldwide trend of the shift of the centre of port activities are from Manhattan in New York City to Elisabeth, New Jersey; from Marseilles to Fos; and from Alexandria to Dekahilia in Egypt.
- 1 0 年前最佳解答
除技術變動之外, containerization 的作用在常規港系統被體現了在衝擊二條其它大道: 空間和組織。臺架起重機的改善的貨物處理的能力比較常規起重機有直接裝緊在比率在停泊處的長度和相當數量備用土地之間。典型地, 二到三英畝手指碼頭描述了常規一般貨物口岸。容器處理是空間要求的操作, 終端的共同的大小在多數容器口岸在80 年代採蘑菇了對五到六英畝。對備用空間的巨大需求, 與需要一起改進可及性對內地運輸網路, 需要了拆遷終端和很快使許多港設施過時。擴展港適當是不可能的如果毗鄰區域已經被加強了或否則被選定了非口岸活動, 或如果土地買進成本是禁止的。容器終端, 經常發現它難經營在現有的江邊口岸, 然後被迫使行動向市區的邊緣, 空間是可利用的, 或均勻調遷對一個整個地新地點。港務局, 特別在歐洲, 解決了他們的對更多空間的需要的單程是通過寬, 平的站點的順流開墾這建築和清疏深水沿著。港設施的拆遷從倫敦的老船塢對Tilbury 可能服務為例。港活動的中心的轉移的這個全世界趨向的其它例證是從曼哈頓在紐約對Elisabeth, 新澤西; 從馬賽對Fos; 並且從亞歷山大對Dekahilia 在埃及。
- teapotLv 61 0 年前