tree 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

英文原文書翻譯 英文翻譯 英翻中 4

Other changes in the significance of wild places and creatures during the latter part of the Middle Ages reflect changes in the social significance of hunting. Before the tenth century,small farmers throughout northern Europe had Been allowed to hunt more or less freely on their own land. But as new techniques of agriculture produced a surge in medieval crop yields and population,and Europe*s forests retteated before the ax and the plow,hunting rights were increasingly taken over by the aristocracy,who put the remaining patches of woods off limits as royal hunting preserves and ruthlessly punished any peasants suspected of taking game (White,1962,39ff;Dalby,1965,v;Eckardt,1976,27-31;Hobusch,1978,117-19).

Hunting thus took on opposite connotations for the peasants and the aristocracy. For the elite,the hunt became an elaborate ritual encrusted with jargon and courtly ceremoney,which served to validate the aristocratic credentials of the hunt-ers. The peasantry,on the other hand ,associated hunting with freedom,feasting,and

Rebellion against the authorities in the songs and stories they soon began to tell about Robin Hood and other deer-poaching forest fugitives,from the eleventh century onward(Keen,1961).

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  • 1 0 年前
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    在狂放的地方和生物上的意義的其他變化在中世紀期間的後者部分反射在狩獵上的社會意義的變化。 在第十個世紀之前,小農遍及北歐在他們自己的土地允許自由地尋找或多或少。 但是,當農業新的技術在中世紀穀物收穫量和人口生產了浪湧和Europe*s森林在軸之前retteated,并且犁,尋找權利由貴族政府,越來越接管投入森林剩餘的補丁禁止入內之地區,當皇家狩獵蜜餞和冷酷地懲罰所有農民被懷疑採取比賽(白色, 1962,39ff; dalby 1965年, v; Eckardt, 1976,27-31; Hobusch, 1978,117-19)。

    因而尋找承擔了相反內涵為農民和貴族政府。 為精華,狩獵成為了一種精心製作的儀式複與專科術語和奉承ceremoney,服務確認獵人的貴族證件。 農民,另一方面,伴生的狩獵以自由,赴宴,和

    對當局的叛亂在他們很快開始向前講關於羅賓遜和其他鹿偷獵的森林逃亡者的歌曲和故事,從第十一個世紀(Keen 1961)。

    2007-12-02 08:59:41 補充:

    不是用奇摩的字典歐!!

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