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Additives (modifiers)

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Additives (modifiers).Most plastics are truly composites because of the many

additives compounded with the resin to enhance its properties. Beyond the catalysts

(also known as accelerators or initiators) that are added in minute quantities to start

polymerization, additives serve to increase processibility, reduce oxidation (corrosion)

add color, reduce molecular weight, increase flexibility, reinforce, retard flammability,

or increase electrical conductivity. Most polymers will absorb foreign elements that

can cause degradation. Stabilizers are added to prevent this. Ultraviolet radiation and

oxygen (ozone) can alter the chemical bonds of plastics so that free radicals develop

within chains. A free radical is an atom, ion, or molecule with an unpaired electron.

The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in an atom can pair, thus

creating a covalent bond. The free radicals are segmentations within the polymer that

can easily combine with other elements to cause a breakdown of the plastics structure

and severely affect properties. Cross-links may form to produce a more brittle plastic

or cause the disruption of the chain structure, which will limit tensile strength. Carbon

black, produced through the burning of carbonaceous materials such as gas or oil, will

block out ultraviolet light while strengthening the plastic. Metals such as barium,

cadmium, and lead in compounds are used as stabilizers. Amine and phenol chemicals

serve as sunscreens as they interact with photons.

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    Additives (modifiers).Most plastics are truly composites because of the many 添加劑(modifiers).Most 塑料真實地是綜合由於許多additives compounded with the resin to enhance its properties. Beyond the catalysts 添加劑被配製以樹脂提高它的物產。在催化劑之外(also known as accelerators or initiators) that are added in minute quantities to start (亦稱加速器或創始者) 增加以詳細的數量來開始polymerization, additives serve to increase processibility, reduce oxidation (corrosion) 聚化, 添加劑用於增加processibility, 減少氧化作用(腐蝕)add color, reduce molecular weight, increase flexibility, reinforce, retard flammability, 增加顏色, 減少分子量, 增加靈活性, 加強, 減速燃燒性,.or increase electrical conductivity. Most polymers will absorb foreign elements that 或增量電導率。多數聚合物將吸收外國元素那can cause degradation. Stabilizers are added to prevent this. Ultraviolet radiation and 能導致退化。安定器增加防止這。紫外線輻射和oxygen (ozone) can alter the chemical bonds of plastics so that free radicals develop 氧氣(臭氧) 可能修改塑料化學鍵以便自由基顯現出within chains. A free radical is an atom, ion, or molecule with an unpaired electron. 在鏈子之內。一個自由基是原子、離子, 或分子與一個無對手的電子。The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in an atom can pair, thus Pauli 排除原則闡明, 二個電子在原子無法配對, thus creating a covalent bond. The free radicals are segmentations within the polymer that 因而創造共價債券。自由基是分割在聚合物之內那

    can easily combine with other elements to cause a breakdown of the plastics structure可以容易地結合以其它元素導致塑料結構的故障and severely affect properties. Cross-links may form to produce a more brittle plastic 並且嚴厲地影響物產。交鍵也許形成生產更加易碎的塑料or cause the disruption of the chain structure, which will limit tensile strength. Carbon 或導致鏈結構的中斷, 將限制抗拉強度。Carbon black, produced through the burning of carbonaceous materials such as gas or oil, 炭黑, 導致通過燃燒碳質的材料譬如天然氣或石油will block out ultraviolet light while strengthening the plastic. Metals such as barium, 將遮蔽紫外光當加強塑料。金屬譬如鋇,cadmium, and lead in compounds are used as stabilizers. Amine and phenol chemicals 鎘和鉛在化合物被使用作為安定器。胺物和酚化學製品serve as sunscreens as they interact with photons. 擔當sunscreens 如同他們與光子相處融洽。

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