? 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

急用...拜託翻譯!!謝謝麻煩..非常急用~大好人快解救

1.中古初期大約指公元五百至一千年左右的歐洲發展,重點有四:基督教文化、蠻族入侵、東羅馬政權的維持以及回教文化的興起。公元四七六年西羅馬帝國遭滅,古典文明終告結束,取而代之的是中古歐洲的燦爛文化。它承襲了希臘羅馬的文化遺產,接受日耳曼民族傳統風俗,發揚基督教精神,並且以基督宗教教化日耳曼人,以全新的方式及觀點闡釋古典文明。政治方面以君士坦丁堡為政治、軍事、宗教中心的拜占廷帝國是東西文化的緩衝地,保存了古典文明的文學、科學及醫學,奠定後世發展的基礎。並以羅馬法為藍本,編纂查士丁尼法典。

2.公元一0五0至一三00年歐洲歷史邁入中古盛期,政治上,外患減少,政情趨於穩定;外交上,十字軍東征運動如火如荼的展開;文化上,文藝蓬勃發展,大學出現;社會上,城市興起;宗教上,政教衝突日趨嚴重。

3.中古後期天災人禍持續不已,戰爭、疾病、死亡接踵而至,人民飽受摧殘,只能依賴宗教力量祈求倖免。由公元一三00至一四五0年,歐洲經濟失調,社會動盪不安,暴力犯罪不止,死亡普遍,黑死病及百年戰爭在此時期最具代表性。

4."黑暗時期", 主要是西羅馬帝國崩潰後, 北方蠻族入主歐陸, 文化發展為之中斷, 少數的學術思想僅在教會中流傳. 一般人民生活在莊園制度下, 則形同農奴, 終日但求溫飽. 整個社會呈現封閉保守的狀態, 科學和藝術停滯,如同前者所說,雖然是蠻族入侵,但他們不敢摧毀教會﹝怕會招致神怒﹞所以幾乎所有的典籍都只有教會蒐藏的保留下來,但外面的世界是很紛亂的,就是有點像戒嚴,但又更恐怖,所以稱為黑暗時期。

5.一般人民生活在莊園制度下, 則形同農奴, 終日但求溫飽. 整個社會呈現封閉保守的狀態, 科學和藝術停滯但外面的世界是很紛亂的,就是有點像戒嚴,但又更恐怖,所以稱為黑暗

2 個解答

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  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    1.

    The Middle Ages initial period big ring finger A.D. developed 500 to

    1000 about Europe, had with emphasis four: The Christianity culture,

    the race invades, east the Roman political power maintenance as well

    as Islam culture starting.A.D. west 476 years the Roman Empire suffers extinguishes, the classical civilized end considers the conclusion,

    displaces is the Middle Ages Europe's bright culture.It has carried on the Greek Rome's cultural heritage, accepts the

    Germanic nationality tradition custom, carries forward the

    Christianity spirit, and enlightens the Germanic person by the Christ

    religion, by brand-new way and viewpoint explanation classical

    civilization. The political aspect take Constantinople as politics,

    the military, the religious center does obeisance occupies the seat of

    monarchical government empire is the thing culture cushion place, has

    preserved the classical civilized literature, the science and the

    medicine, lays foundation which the later generations develops. And

    take the Roman law as the main source, compiles Zha Shihting the Nepal

    statute book.

    2.

    A.D. the European history stepped into the Middle Ages prime season

    1,050 to 1300, in politics, the foreign aggression reduced, the

    political sentiment tended to stably; In diplomacy, crusade eastern

    expedition movement like a raging fire launching; In the culture, the

    literary vigorous development, the university appears; In the society,

    the city emerges; In the religion, the politics teaches to conflict

    day by day seriously.

    3.

    The Middle Ages later period the nature and man-made disaster does not

    continue already, the war, the disease, the death follow on somebody's

    heels, the people fully suffer devastate, only can rely on the.

    以上字數超過 4和5 在下寄給你

    參考資料: 自己
  • 1 0 年前

    因為內容字數超過範圍~所以我用寄信的寄給你~

    全部都有翻譯完成~我們英文教授翻ㄉㄛ~~

    快去信箱看看吧~

    正確版解答就是我了~~~^ ^b

    參考資料: 我請我們學校的英文教授翻譯的~是最正確的答案!
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