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? 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

求助英文翻譯高手....

拜託英文高手幫我翻譯....(請不要用翻譯軟體,我有Dr.Eye,可是翻出來都看不懂,很奇怪)

There have been dozens of studies performed on sport to determine how a variety of factors affect attendance or demand. In the early studies, Demmert (1973) and Noll (1974) found that absolute quality was in fact a significant determinant of attendance for baseball. More recently, Knowles, Sherony, and Haupert (1992) explain how uncertainty of outcome assumes that spectators increase their utility through sporting events that have a higher level of unpredictability, and that more evenly matched teams will yield less certain outcomes and thus, higher attendance. Some of the other demand factors analyzed include star players (Noll, 1974; Schurr, Wittig, Ruble, & Ellen, 1987; Schwartz, 1973; Scully, 1974), game schedules (Hill, Madura, & Zuber, 1982), and ticket prices (Bird, 1982; Boyd & Boyd, 1998; Siegfried & Eisenberg, 1980).Butler (2002) includes a recent bibliography of studies of the determinants of demand for sporting events. Using a sample of 1988 Major League Baseball games, Knowles et al. (1992) found that the ex ante attendance maximizing probability that the home team would win a game is about 0.60. Rascher (1999) used data for the entire 1996 MLB season and concluded that the ex ante optimal probability that the home team would win was between 0.60 and 0.67, depending on the specification.

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    Q : 求助英文翻譯高手....

    拜託英文高手幫我翻譯....(請不要用翻譯軟體,我有Dr.Eye,可是翻出來都看不懂,很奇怪)

    In his article titled “Peculiar economics of professional sports,” Neale (1964) first noted that competitors desired other quality competitors. Today, this notion of greater competition having a positive effect on a firm’s bottom

    line is termed limited positive production network externality. Up to a point, more competitors are better than fewer, or higher quality competitors are better than lower quality competitors—a major exception to classical economic theory. In other words, higher revenues depend on increased on-the-field competition between teams. In order to achieve competitive games, league management have instituted numerous rules—starting in 1876 with the reserve system in baseball—to the current set of policies that include rookie drafts, salary caps, luxury taxes, and revenue sharing. Fort (2002) and Leeds and von Allmen (2002) discuss league rules for increasing competitive balance. The efficacy of these rules in increasing or maintaining competitive balance is currently under debate (see Fort & Quirk, 1992; Sanderson, 2002; and Rascher, 2002, for different perspectives on this debate).

    A:在他的文章裡題為"職業體育奇怪經濟," Neale (1964) 第一次注意到, 競爭者渴望了其它質量競爭者。今天, 這個更加巨大的競爭的概念有一個正面作用在公司的底部

    線被命名有限的正面生產網路客觀性。由點決定, 更多競爭者比較少好, 或更加優質的競爭者比更低的質量競爭者主要例外好對古典經濟理論。換句話說, 收支更高取決於增加的在這領域競爭在隊之間。為了達到競爭比賽, 1876 年同盟管理設立許多規則開始以儲備系統棒球對包括缺乏經驗的運動員草稿、薪水最高限額, 奢侈品稅, 和分享收入的當前的套政策。堡壘(2002) 並且利茲和馮Allmen (2002) 談論同盟規則為增加競爭平衡。這些規則效力在增加或維護競爭平衡當前是在辯論之下(參見Fort & Quirk 1992 年; Sanderson 2002 年; 並且Rascher 2002

    年, 為對這次辯論的不同的透視) 。

    參考資料: 自己找的
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  • 9 年前

    您好!

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  • 1 0 年前

    有是許多研究被進行在體育確定怎麼各種各樣的因素影響出勤或要求。在早期的研究中, Demmert (1973) 並且Noll (1974) 發現absolute 質量實際上是出勤一個重大定列式為棒球。最近, Knowles 、Sherony, 和Haupert (1992) 解釋怎麼結果不確定性假設,

    觀眾增加他們的公共事業通過有一個更高的水平不可預料的體育事件, 並且更加均勻地被匹配的隊將產生較不某些結果和因而, 更高的出勤。一些其它需求因素被分析包括星球員(Noll 1974 年; Schurr 、Wittig, 盧布, & Ellen 1987 年; Schwartz 1973 年; Scully, 1974), 遊戲日程表(小山、Madura,

    & Zuber 1982), 和票價格(Bird 1982 年; Boyd & Boyd 1998 年; Siegfried & Eisenberg, 1980).Butler (2002) 包括需求定列式的研究一個最近參考書目對體育事件的。使用1988 場棒球協會比賽樣品, Knowles 等(1992) 發現未下賭注的出勤最大化可能性主隊會贏賽是大約0.60 。Rascher (1999) 使用了資料在整個1996 MLB 季節和認為, 主隊會贏取的未下賭注的優選的可能性是在0.60 和0.67 之間, 根據規格。

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