promotion image of download ymail app
Promoted
Crystal 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

請英文高手幫忙翻譯歷史唷~!!

以下是我要報告ㄉ內容~請幫我把中文部份翻成約略ㄉ英文唷~

我要上台報告用ㄉ~~謝謝^^

鉛筆的歷史

1.介紹

鉛筆是一種用於在紙上書寫、繪畫的手持式工具。它是用石墨(除了彩色鉛筆)進行記錄的,石墨的外面還套著木桿。鉛筆的另一頭也可以帶有一個橡皮擦。鉛筆與其他筆(除了可擦寫筆)的不同之處在於它的筆跡很容易被擦掉。

2.歷史

1564年,英格蘭島受颶風襲擊,昆布蘭地區的許多大樹被連根拔起,人們在樹根下發現了一種黑色礦物質——石墨,它可以輕易地在物體上留下黑色的印記。因當時化學剛開始發展,故被誤認為鉛。當地牧羊人常用它在羊身上畫記號,以便於辨認。而又因為石墨比較柔軟,必須製成一定的形狀,石墨棒起初是用細繩或羊皮紙包裝。之後,鉛筆的好用性被廣為傳播,吸引了全世界著名藝術家的注意。首先是義大利人想到用木頭來固定它,剛開始的時候是在木頭中挖出棒性的洞。不久以後,發明了一種更方便的技巧:用兩塊雕刻過的木頭夾住石墨棒,然後將兩塊木頭用膠水粘住——從本質上來說,這個方法與現在所使用的是一致的。

鉛筆製造流程

在拿破崙戰爭的時候英國和德國鉛筆不再供應給法國。拿破崙部隊里的一個軍官試圖改變這種情況。1795年孔德發現可以把石墨粉用粘土混合,將其做成棒形放入窯中烘烤。通過改變石墨對粘土混合的比率,可以改變石墨棒的硬度(粘土越多,鉛筆就越硬,筆跡顏色越淺),而這個製作方法一直延用到今天。

現在的鉛筆在工業生產中是通過混合細微石墨和粘土粉,加水,做成象麵條一樣的長條形,在窯中烘烤。再將長條形浸入油或融化的蠟中,使液體滲透到材料的微小孔隙里,可以使書寫更為流暢。在樹木或雪松板上刻上許多平行的細長凹槽,將石墨/粘土的長條放在其中,再將凹槽板頂部粘住,切割成單個的鉛筆,然後噴漆著色。

硬度表

一套藝術鉛筆的變化範圍是從非常硬的淺色鉛筆到非常軟的深色鉛筆,通常從最硬到最軟的範圍可以表示如下:

硬→中等→軟

美國體系,只使用數字,下面是與歐洲體系硬度的對應關係。

濃度* #2½又稱 24/8、2.5或25/10。

3.結論

人們常對鉛筆芯有所誤解,雖然鉛芯這名字中有一個「鉛」,但鉛芯是利用無毒的石墨製成,不含鉛,所以鉛芯沒有毒性。而鉛筆的發明不但使我們在生活、教育上更加的方便,也促進了許多相關的發明,像是其他形式的鉛筆:自動鉛筆 免削鉛筆 紙捲鉛筆 魔術鉛筆,而其特殊的用途:鉛筆除了書寫,還可以算是鑒別鑽石的真偽,將鑽石用水潤濕,用鉛筆上面刻劃一下,如果鑽石是真的,其表面不會留下鉛筆劃過的痕跡,而如果是用玻璃、水晶、電力石等製作的假鑽石則會留下痕跡。

2 個解答

評分
  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    History of the pencil

    1.Introduce

    Pencil whether one use for write, holding type tool of painting at paper. It uses the graphite ( Except colored pencil) What has been written down, return the wooden pole of set outside graphite. There can even be a rubber at the other end of the pencil. The pencil and other pens ( Except can wipe and write with the pen) Difference for lying in it getting easier very to wipe off in handwriting.

    2008-03-15 20:26:40 補充:

    2.History

    2008-03-15 20:27:11 補充:

    -->意見

    2008-03-15 20:29:39 補充:

    2.History

    In 1564, Ingle Orchid Island is attacked by the hurricane, a lot of big trees of the blue area of kelp are uprooped, people have found a kind of black mineral substance under the root

    2008-03-15 20:29:48 補充:

    Graphite, it can leave the black seal on the object easily. Because chemistry just began to develop at that time, so thought the lead by mistake.

    2008-03-15 20:30:12 補充:

    The local shepherd is daily it draws the mark on sheep, in order to recognize. And because the graphite is softer, must make certain form, the graphite is originally packed excellently with the string or the parchment.

    2008-03-15 20:30:26 補充:

    Later, pencil getting handy to spread wide, attract whole world famous attention of artist. It is Italians that think of fixing it with the wood at first, dig out excellent hole in the wood while just beginning. In the near future, invent a kind of more convenient skill:

    2008-03-15 20:30:33 補充:

    Carry the graphite excellently with two pieces of wood carved, then cling two pieces of wood with the glue Say from essence, what this method and now used is unanimous.

    2008-03-15 20:30:53 補充:

    The pencil makes procedure

    The British and German pencil is no longer supplied to France during Napoleon's war. An officer in army of Napoleon attempts to change this kind of situation.

    2008-03-15 20:31:20 補充:

    Germany Kong is it can mix graphite powder with clay to find, make it into excellent shape put into one year. Through changing the rate that the graphite mixes to the clay, can change the excellent hardness of graphite ing,

    2008-03-15 20:31:29 補充:

    (clay is the more, the harder the pencil is, the color of the handwriting is the lighter) ,And the manufacture method is it use today to prolong.

    2008-03-15 20:31:55 補充:

    The present pencil is passed and mixed slight graphite and clay powder in industrial production, add water, make it into like the rectangular shape as noodles, toast in the kiln. In the wax that and then soak the rectangular shape in the oil or melt,

    2008-03-15 20:32:13 補充:

    in the small hole making the liquid permeate through the material, can enable writing more smooth. Carve a lot of upper parallel long and thin grooves at the trees or the cedar board, place the graphite / clay rectangularly on among them,

    2008-03-15 20:32:22 補充:

    and then cling the groove board top, cut into an individual pencil, then spray paint and colour.

    2008-03-15 20:32:42 補充:

    Hardness form

    One artistic change of pencil range from hard light-colored pencil get soft dark pencil very very, usually can be expressed as follows from hardest to the softest range:

    2008-03-15 20:32:46 補充:

    Hard Medium-sized Soft

    U.S.A.'s system, use figure, the following and European corresponding relation, system of hardness only.

    Thickness * 2? Also called 24/8, 2.5 or 25/10.

    2008-03-15 20:33:05 補充:

    3.Conclusion

    People misunderstand the lead to some extent often, though there is a piece of ' lead ' in this name of lead core, but the lead core utilizes nonpoisonous graphite to make, not leaded, so the plumbous core has no toxicity. Not only the convenience making us have in the life,

    2008-03-15 20:33:25 補充:

    education of invention of and the pencil, have promoted a lot of relevant inventions too, it is like pencils of other forms: The propelling pencil avoids sharpening a pencil magic pencil of pencil paper,

    2008-03-15 20:33:37 補充:

    and its special use: The pencil can be regarded as the true and false of distinguishing the diamond, wet the diamond with water besides writing, delineate above with the pencil, if the diamond is true,

    2008-03-15 20:33:47 補充:

    the mark that its surface will not leave pencils and row, if it is that the false diamond made in glass, crystal, electric stone,etc. will leave the mark.

    2008-03-15 20:34:14 補充:

    " 僅供參考 "

    • Commenter avatar登入以對解答發表意見
  • 4 年前

    我知道桃園永全當鋪有在收

    因為我之前有拿我的手機去那周轉過

    他們服務很好 人又親切 裡面燈光明亮

    重點是 我拿手機去周轉 他們小心翼翼的幫我包起來

    讓我好放心 還拿信封袋封口 妥善保管我的手機

    好貼心的服務 你可以先打電話去諮詢

    或直接去諮詢 滿意在借 老闆人非常好

    • Commenter avatar登入以對解答發表意見
還有問題?馬上發問,尋求解答。