Gardens of Perfect Clarity
The Old Summer Palace, known in China as the Gardens of Perfect Clarity (traditional Chinese: 圓明園; simplified Chinese: 圆明园; pinyin: Yunmng Yun, referred to in many books as Yuan Ming Yuan),
Initial construction began in 1707, during the reign of Emperor Kangxi and was on a much smaller scale. It was intended as a gift for the emperor's fourth son, later Emperor Yongzheng. In 1725, under Emperor Yongzheng, the Imperial Gardens were greatly expanded. Yongzheng introduced the waterworks of the gardens which created some of the lakes, streams and ponds which greatly complemented the rolling hills and grounds. Yongzheng also named 28 scenic spots within the garden.
By Emperor Qianlong's reign, the second expansion was well underway. Qianlong personally took interest and directed the expansion works. Qianlong also increased the number of scenic spots in the gardens to 40. By the middle of the 19th century, the Imperial Gardens had undergone expansion in one form or another for over 150 years.