怡玫 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

急~請幫我英翻中這段文章!!拜託了!!

Analysis and synthesis techniques developed, concepts were founded. The horizon was broadened by collaboration, initially with architects and urban designers, and later with planners, ecologists, social scientists and civil engineers. Similarly, insights essential to landscape planning and the design of outdoor space were provided by geographers, psychologists and historians, while ecologists revealed the vital connections between the three natures.

Contemporary landscape architects need to master the language of all these disciplines and apply their principles in their work – and, at times, unexpected problems are created by the discipline’s greatly expanded vocabulary. ‘The broad range of problems that landscape architects are now tackling – from a garden to a toxic waste dump, a regional planning study, or an urban renewal site – tend to draw them away from the physical locations and the social, cultural or educational milieux where their values and beliefs were initially formed’ (Walker 1994).

The distinction between the domain of landscape architecture and that of planning and urban design is becoming blurred. The growth of the profession leads some observers to marvel: ‘I know of no other profession.’ Ian McHarg states, ‘which escalated as swiftly from oblivion to international significance, nor one where so few persons have accomplished so much’ (1998). During the 20th century, landscape architecture evolved from an arts and crafts movement into an academic discipline with its own schools, research institutes and professional journals, and also with an association within which the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of design are in constant debate.

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  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    Analysis and synthesis techniques developed, concepts were founded. The horizon was broadened by collaboration, initially with architects and urban designers, and later with planners, ecologists, social scientists and civil engineers. Similarly, insights essential to landscape planning and the design of outdoor space were provided by geographers, psychologists and historians, while ecologists revealed the vital connections between the three natures.

    分析和綜合技術被開發, 概念建立了。天際被合作變寬了, 最初地與建築師和都市設計師, 和以後與計劃者、生態學家、社會學家和土木工程師。同樣, 洞察根本與風景計劃和室外空間設計由geographers 、心理學家和史學家提供了, 當生態學家顯露了重要連接在三自然之間。

    Contemporary landscape architects need to master the language of all these disciplines and apply their principles in their work – and, at times, unexpected problems are created by the discipline’s greatly expanded vocabulary. ‘The broad range of problems that landscape architects are now tackling – from a garden to a toxic waste dump, a regional planning study, or an urban renewal site – tend to draw them away from the physical locations and the social, cultural or educational milieux where their values and beliefs were initially formed’ (Walker 1994).

    當代園藝師需要掌握所有這些學科語言和申請他們的原則在他們的工作- 並且意想不到的問題由學科的很大地膨脹的詞彙量, 時常, 製造。問題的寬廣的範圍園藝師現在應付他們的價值和信仰最初地被形成' 的` - 從一個庭院對有毒廢料轉儲、一項區域計劃研究, 或都市更新站點- 傾向於得出他們從實際位置和社會,

    文化或教育周圍環境(步行者1994) 。

    2008-04-15 17:07:26 補充:

    分別在風景建築學領域和那計劃和都市設計之間成為弄髒。行業的成長帶領一些觀察員驚奇: ` I 知道沒有其它行業。' 作為快速地升級從忘卻對國際意義的伊恩・McHarg 狀態, `, 亦不一個那麼少量人非常完成了' 的地方(1998) 。在20 世紀期間, 風景建築學演變了從藝術和製作運動入一個學術學科與它自己的學校、研究所和專業學報, 和並且以之內` 為什麼' 和` 的協會在怎麼' 設計是在恆定的辯論中。

    2008-04-15 17:08:13 補充:

    最後一段的英文打不進去

  • ?
    Lv 5
    1 0 年前

    概念因分析與綜合技巧發展而被發現。透過最初由建築師和城市設計師的協同合作,後來又與規劃師、生態學者、社會學者和民間工程師,這經驗的視野被擴張了。相似地,當生態學者揭主櫫再這三者性質間的重要關聯時,地理學者、心理學者和歷史學者也提供重要的景觀規劃與戶外空間設計洞察眼光。

    →find 過去詞應是found

    →此處的horizon應解釋為(知識,經驗等的)範圍;眼界;視野

    當代景觀建築師需要掌握所有的建築規範語言(指建築界的共通語言)並應用它們的原則到工作上- 有時甚至因為規範的大幅擴張的詞彙導致意想不到的問題產生。問題範圍之廣,景觀建築師正著手處理 - 從花園、有毒廢物傾倒到區域規劃研究,或市郊區重建工地 - 讓這些景觀建築師傾向遠離身家、社會、文化或教育背景,而這些也初步形成他們的價值觀和信念。(Walker,1994 ) 。

    →milieux 【法】周圍環境(尤指社會及文化方面);出身背景

    景觀建築與城郊設計規劃兩者之間的區別正變得模糊不清。這樣專業的發展導致部分觀察家驚嘆,1998年,伊恩麥克哈格(Ian McHarg)說: "就我所知,沒有任何其他行業升級得如此迅速敏捷,從被遺忘到具國際重要意義;也沒有一個地方,以如此少數人完成如此多的成就" 。在二十世紀,景觀建築從工藝美術進化發展自有學校、研究機構與專業期刊的學科規範,還與一個協會擁有設計中"為什麼"跟"如何"的持續辯論。

  • 小君
    Lv 6
    1 0 年前

    分析與綜合技術開發,概念誕生。地平線上是擴大合作,最初與建築師和城市設計師,後來又與規劃者,生態學家,社會科學家和民間工程師。同樣,洞察至關重要的景觀規劃與設計的室外空間提供了地理學家,心理學家和歷史學家,而生態學家揭示了至關重要的聯繫,三者之間的性質。

    當代景觀建築師需要掌握的語言,所有這些學科,並運用自己的原則,在他們的工作-,有時甚至意想不到的問題是製造出來的紀律的大幅度擴大詞彙量。 '範圍廣泛的問題,景觀建築師處於攻堅階段-從一個花園,以一種有毒廢物傾倒,區域規劃研究,或市區重建工地-往往吸引他們遠離物理所在位置,以及社會,文化或教育mi lieux而他們的價值觀和信仰被初步形成了' (沃克1994 ) 。

    兩者之間的區別域的園林建築,並規劃和城市設計正變得模糊。該專業發展,導致一些觀察家驚嘆: '我所知,沒有任何其他行業。伊恩mcharg國, '升級得如此迅速,從諸腦後,以具有國際意義的,也沒有一個地方,使少數人有如此多的成就' ( 1998年) 。在剛剛過去的二十世紀,園林建築的主要矛盾,從一個工藝美術運動到的學科與自己的學校,科研院所和專業期刊,還與一個協會,其中'為什麼'和'如何'的設計是在不斷的辯論。

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