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Glendon 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

幫我翻譯英文!!(急需)謝謝aaa

The essence of the problem was simple ; P&G costs were too high because of extensive duplication of manufacturing , marketing , and administrative facilitation in different national subsidiaries . The duplication of assets made sense in the world of the 1960s , when national markets were segmented from each other by barriers to cross-border trade . Products produced in Great Britain , for example , could not be sold economically in Germany due to high tariff duties levied on imports into Germany . By the 1980s , however , barriers to cross-border trade were falling rapidly worldwide and fragmented national markets were merging into larger regional or global markets . Also , the retailers through which P&G distributed its products were growing larger and more global , such as Wal-Mart , Tesco from the United Kingdom , and Carrefour from France . These emerging global retailers were demanding price discounts from P&G .

In 1933 , P&G embarked on a major reorganization in an attempt to control its cost structure and recognize the new reality of emerging global markets . The company shut down some 30 manufacturing plants around the globe , laid off 13,000 employees , and concentrated production in fewer plants that could better realize economies of scale and serve regional markets . These actions cut some $600million a year out of P&G’s cost structure . It wasn’t enough ! Profit growth remained sluggish .

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2 個解答

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  • 立屏
    Lv 6
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    問題的根源很簡單;P&G在各國布置了過於重複的生產、行銷以及管理流程,而這些耗費了太多的金錢。1960年代時,這樣作是符合當時認知的,當國際市場還被關稅貿易等分割為互不連通的小區塊時。

    例如,英國生產的產品不能就近經濟的銷售至德國,因為德國對進口有著極高的關稅稅率。但在1980年附近,全世界的關稅貿易型態都漸漸合併為較大的經濟區域,往世界市場的方向邁進。

    同時間,替 P&G 銷售的下游經銷商們也日益增多並變得更全球化;例如美國的威瑪百貨(Wal-Mart)、英國的 Tesco與法國的家樂福(Carrefour)。這些新生的全球性經銷很堅持的對 P&G 要求價位上的折扣。

    1933年,P&G 啟動了一項大規模的企業重組,希望能借此試著控制企業內部的成本架構並重新認識這些新興國際化經銷商的新願景。P&G全球關閉了約30個生產工廠,遣退一萬三千多名員工;並將生產集中在經濟效益較好,較能服務該生產地區市場的少數幾個工廠。這整組行動一年省下 P&G 約六十億美金的成本結構。但這樣仍嫌不足!營利成長依舊過於緩慢。

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  • 問題的精華簡單; P&G 費用是太高的由於製造業、行銷, 和行政幫助的廣泛的複製用不同的全國輔助者。財產的複製有道理在60 年代的世界, 當全國市場被分割了從彼此由對跨越邊界貿易的障礙。產品被生產在英國, 例如, 不能經濟上被賣在德國由於高關稅責任被徵收在進口進入德國。在80 年代以前, 然而, 對跨越邊界貿易的障礙迅速地落全世界並且被分割的全國市場合併入更大的地方或全球性市場。並且, 販商P&G 分佈它的產品增長大和全球性, 譬如沃爾碼、Tesco 從英國, 和Carrefour 從法國。這些湧現的全球性販商要求價格折扣從P&G 。1933 年, P&G 開始主要整頓為控制它的成本結構和認可湧現的全球性市場的新現實。公司世界各地關閉了大約30 家製造工廠, 解雇了13,000

    名雇員, 和集中了生產在能更好體會經濟尺度和服務地方市場的少量植物中。這些行動切開了某一$600million 每年在P&G 的成本結構外面。它不是足夠! 贏利成長依然是慢吞吞。

    參考資料: 翻譯
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