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Steroid Hormone Pathways

  The amount of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreted by the pituitary gland regulates adrenal gland steroid hormone synthesis. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) work together to stimulate the production of ACTH (Levine & White, 2004). The central nervous system, via the hypothalamus, stimulates the release of CRH and AVP. In turn, ACTH stimulates the adrenal gland to synthesize steroid hormones. Cholesterol is the primary substrate needed for the synthesis of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens (McCance & Huether, 2002).

Mineralocorticoid Pathway

  The most important mineralocorticoid is aldosterone. It is an essential hormone responsible for sodium retention and potassium excretion via the sodium potassium pump, and it is, therefore, essential to life. The renin-angiotension system controls aldosterone secretion. Through the mineralcocorticoid pathway in the zona glomerulosa, cholesterol is synthesized into pregnenolone. Pregnenolone is then synthesized into progesterone (New & Ghizzoni, 2003). The enzyme 21-OH converts progesterone into 11- deoxycortocosterone; it continues through the pathway and ends with the production of aldosterone (see Figure 1).

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  • 小林
    Lv 5
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    流通adrenocorticotropic 激素(ACTH)的數量透過腦垂體分泌的類固醇激素小路腺調節腎上腺類固醇激素綜合。 釋放Corticotropin的激素(CRH)和arginine vasopressin(AVP)一同工作刺激ACTH(萊文和白色,2004)的生產。 中樞神經系統,透過hypothalamus,刺激CRH 和AVP的釋放。 依次,ACTH 刺激腎上腺合成類固醇激素。 膽固醇是對于mineralocorticoids,glucocorticoids 和雄性激素(麥坎斯& Huether,2002)的綜合需要的主要底層。 Mineralocorticoid小路最重要的mineralocorticoid是aldosterone。 這透過鈉鉀幫浦是對鈉保留和鉀排泄負責的必要的激素, 並且它是, 因此,對生命必要。 renin-angiotension系統控制aldosterone分泌。 透過在zona glomerulosa裡的mineralcocorticoid小路,膽固醇被合成成pregnenolone。 Pregnenolone然後合成進孕酮(新和Ghizzoni,2003)。 噢的 21把孕酮轉變成11-deoxycortocosterone; 它透過小路繼續並且以aldosterone的生產(參閱圖1)結束。

    參考資料: Dr.eye
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