vivian 發問時間: 健康疾病與處置傳染病 · 1 0 年前

關於腸病毒<中翻英> 懇請高手幫忙 謝謝

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Q:什麼是腸病毒(enterovirus)?

A:腸病毒是一群病毒的總稱,包刮23型A群克沙奇病毒(Coxackie virus)、6型B群克沙奇病 毒、3型小兒麻痺病毒(poliovirus)、30型依科病毒及最後發現的68至71型腸病毒,一共有六十幾種病毒。

Q:腸病毒是不是只有台灣地區才有?在什麼季節流行?

A:此種病毒世界各地都有,通常在夏季、初秋流行,台灣地區因為再亞熱帶,所以全年都有可能有感染之發生。

Q:腸病毒是怎麼傳染的?

A:病毒的傳染常因成人自外面帶回,經由接觸或以飛沫方式感染家中幼兒而造成;也可能經由接觸無症狀帶病毒家長或病人的口鼻分泌物、咳嗽、打噴嚏飛沫,或吃進被含有病毒之糞便所污染的食物而受傳染,玩具常成為幼兒間傳染的媒介,尤其是帶毛的玩具更容易因接觸幼兒口嘴造成大量病毒感染而發病。傳染力始於發病的前幾天,在喉嚨與糞便都有病毒存在,而其腸道的病毒排出時間可以持續數週之久。一般而言,在發病後的一週內傳染力最高。它們在家庭中有很高的傳染率,在人群密集的地方,也較容易發生染。

Q:得了腸病毒會有什麼症狀?

A:感染病毒後大約二至十天之後才會出現症狀;但是大多數感染者,沒有臨床症狀或臨床症狀極為輕微,而大部分病例過了幾天之後就會自然痊癒。典型症狀為口腔、手掌、腳掌、出現水泡、潰瘍,可能合併發燒。病程為七至十天。極少數個案,有可能發生無菌性腦膜炎、腦炎、心肌炎、心包膜炎、肺炎、麻痺等併發症。

Q:什麼情況下,必須要馬上看醫師?

A:有不尋常的嗜睡、肌躍型抽搐(類似受到驚嚇的突發性全身肌肉收縮動作)與持續嘔吐。其他嚴重併發症的前兆包刮:持續發燒、活動力降低、煩躁不安、意識變化、昏迷、頸部僵硬、肢體僵硬、抽搐、呼吸急促、全身無力、心跳加快或心律不整等,都必須馬上就醫。

Q:要如何來預防腸病毒?

A:目前腸病毒中,除了小兒麻痺病毒以外,沒有疫苗可以預防,所以勤於正確洗手、保持良好個人衛生習慣,減少被傳染的機會是預防的基本發法

(1) 時時注意個人衛生,經常正確洗手。

正確洗手方法如下:

1.在水龍頭下方把手淋濕。

2.插上肥皂或洗手液。

3.兩手心互相磨擦。

4.兩手揉搓自手背至手指。

5.兩手揉搓手掌及手背。

6.作拉手姿勢以擦洗指尖。

7.用清水將雙手洗淨,關水前先 水將水龍頭沖洗乾淨。

8.用乾淨的紙巾或烘乾機將手烘乾。

(2) 流行期間盡量避免出入公共場所,不要疑似病患(家人或同學)接觸。

(3) 注意環境衛生及通風。

(4) 罹病之學童,宜請假暫勿上課,接受治療病好好休息,同時也可避免傳染其他同學。

(5) 增強個人之免疫力,請注意營養、均衡飲食及運動。

Q:孕婦感染腸病毒,會不會升下畸形兒?

A:目前並無證據顯示腸病毒有導致胎兒先天性畸形的可能,但孕婦須避免感染的風險,以預防生產時感染給新生兒。

Q:腸病毒有沒有特殊治療藥物?

A:目前沒有殺死腸病毒的特效藥,一般都是針對發生的症狀,採取對症療法。

另有一些藥廠發展出可以抑制腸病毒的藥物,其作用機制大多是抑制腸病毒對於人類細胞的感染能力。這些藥物在國際間都還在初期的試驗階段,尤其是對於小孩的安全性,都還沒有經過是當的評估,所以還無法使用。

Q:感染過腸病毒之後,有沒有免疫力?以後會不會復發?

A:得到某一種腸病毒感染之後,至少會持續有數十年的免疫力。所以對於同一種病毒而言,不會復發。但是有幾種腸病毒會引起同樣的手足口病或泡疹性咽峽炎,所以有的人會得到一次以上的手足口病或泡疹性咽峽炎。

Q:腸病毒感染之致命機率有多高?

A:大多數腸病毒感染者,症狀都很輕微,甚至沒有症狀。民國八十七年台灣地區腸病毒流行時,雖然專家對感染致死率推估不同,但是一般的估計是在十萬分之一到萬分之ㄧ之間,雖然感染腸病毒以後,99.9%以上的患者都會恢復,但當年由於致病的是腸病毒71型,造成相當震撼,因此認識腸病毒及瞭解其傳染途徑,避免感染的風險是刻不容緩的。

2 個解答

評分
  • 最佳解答

    Q: What is intestinal virus (enterovirus)?

    A: intestinal virus is a generic term for a group of viruses, blowing 23 packets of Group A Coxsackie virus (Coxackie virus), 6-Group B Coxsackie virus type 3 polio virus (poliovirus), 30-under Section virus and final 68 to 71 found that the type of enterovirus infection, a total of some 60 viruses.

    Q: intestinal virus is not only in Taiwan have » What season in the popular »

    A: around the world have the virus, usually in the summer, early fall fashion, again because of Taiwan&#39;s subtropical regions, so the whole year are likely to have infections occurred.

    Q: how intestinal virus is transmitted »

    A: The virus often transmitted from outside back to adults, or through contact with infected droplets form of child care in the home caused; may also be asymptomatic with the virus through contact with the parents or the patient&#39;s mouth and nose secretions, coughing, sneezing droplets, or eat Jin was the droppings contain the virus by contaminated food and infected, toys often become child transmission of the media, especially the toys with hair more easily through contact with a large number of child care mouth mouth infection and disease. Zhuanran Li began in the incidence of a few days ago, in the throat and feces have the virus exist, and their intestinal virus from the time a few weeks. Generally speaking, after the onset of the week Zhuanran Li highest. They are in the family has a high rate of infection in crowded places, are more prone to staining.

    還有...

    2008-06-02 17:01:09 補充:

    Q: What will be the virus had intestinal symptoms »

    2008-06-02 17:01:33 補充:

    A: infected with the virus after about 2-10 days after the symptoms to appear, but the majority of infected persons, no clinical symptoms or very mild symptoms,

    2008-06-02 17:02:08 補充:

    and most cases after a few days later will naturally recover.

    2008-06-02 17:02:19 補充:

    Typical symptoms of mouth, hands, feet, blistering, ulcers, a possible merger fever. Course for 7-10 days. A very small number of cases,

    2008-06-02 17:02:29 補充:

    the possible aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, pneumonia, paralysis and other complications.

    2008-06-02 17:02:40 補充:

    Q: Under what circumstances, we must see doctor immediately »

    2008-06-02 17:02:49 補充:

    A: there are unusual sleepiness, muscle-twitch jump (similar to the shock by the sudden contraction of muscles body movements)

    2008-06-02 17:02:59 補充:

    and continued vomiting. Other serious complications of precursor package scratch: sustained fever, decreased activity, irritability,

    2008-06-02 17:03:08 補充:

    changes in consciousness, a coma, neck stiffness, limb stiffness, convulsions, shortness of breath, general weakness, speed up the heartbeat or arrhythmia,

    2008-06-02 17:03:20 補充:

    and so on, must immediately seek medical treatment.

    2008-06-02 17:04:02 補充:

    Q: How do to prevent enterovirus infection »

    2008-06-02 17:04:11 補充:

    A: At present intestinal virus, in addition to polio virus, the vaccine can not prevent, so diligently wash their hands properly and maintain good personal hygiene habits and reduce opportunities for the prevention of transmission of the basic law

    2008-06-02 17:04:22 補充:

    (1) constant attention to personal hygiene, wash hands frequently correct.

    Proper hand-washing methods are as follows:

    2008-06-02 17:04:30 補充:

    1. Linshi tap the bottom of the handle.

    2. Plug in soap or hand sanitizer.

    3. Friction between both hands heart.

    2008-06-02 17:04:41 補充:

    4. Scrubbing handed back to the finger.

    5. Hands and scrubbing the back of the hand.

    6. Posture for the handle to scrub your fingertips.

    7. Wash hands with clean water, water clearance before water to clean the faucet.

    2008-06-02 17:04:53 補充:

    8. With a clean towel or hand dryer to dry.

    (2) during the pandemic to avoid access to public places, not suspected patients (family members or students) contact.

    (3) pay attention to sanitation and ventilation.

    2008-06-02 17:05:01 補充:

    (4) of the infected children, not to leave school temporarily, for treatment of good rest, but also to prevent transmission of other students.

    (5) enhance the personal immunity, please pay attention to nutrition, balanced diet and exercise.

    2008-06-02 17:05:23 補充:

    Q: pregnant women infected with enterovirus infections, or will be under abnormal child »

    2008-06-02 17:05:39 補充:

    A: There is no evidence of enterovirus infections have led to the possibility of fetal congenital malformations, but pregnant women should avoid any risk of infection to prevent infection to the newborn production.

    2008-06-02 17:05:48 補充:

    Q: intestinal virus have no special treatment drug »

    2008-06-02 17:05:58 補充:

    A: There is no vaccine or treatment to kill intestinal virus, are generally against the symptoms, take symptomatic therapy.

    2008-06-02 17:06:38 補充:

    Some pharmaceutical companies to develop intestinal virus can inhibit the drug, most of its mechanism for the suppression of enterovirus infection of human cells capacity.

    2008-06-02 17:06:48 補充:

    These drugs in the international community are still the initial pilot phase, especially for children's safety, have also not been when the assessment, so it can not be used.

    2008-06-02 17:06:57 補充:

    Q: infected with the enterovirus infection, there are no immunity » It will not relapse »

    2008-06-02 17:07:07 補充:

    A: get a certain type of infection, will continue for at least several decades of immunity. Therefore with a virus, will not relapse.

    2008-06-02 17:07:17 補充:

    But there are several intestinal virus will cause the same hand, foot and mouth disease or Paozhen Gap inflammation of the pharynx,

    2008-06-02 17:07:25 補充:

    so some people will get more than one hand, foot and mouth disease or Paozhen Gap inflammation of the pharynx.

    2008-06-02 17:07:39 補充:

    Q: infection of the deadly how high probability »

    2008-06-02 17:07:49 補充:

    A: Most of infection, symptoms are mild or no symptoms.

    2008-06-02 17:08:13 補充:

    In 1998 Taiwan's intestinal virus epidemic, although experts estimate the rate of infection died different, but the general estimate is that in one hundred thousandth of ㄧ to him,

    2008-06-02 17:08:24 補充:

    and although the EV-71 infection, the 99.9% of patients Will be restored, but was due to intestinal disease is 71, causing a considerable shock, so awareness of intestinal virus and its mode of transmission of understanding to avoid the risk of infection is urgently needed.

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