Tones fall into two broad patterns: Register tone systems and contour tone systems.
1. Contour tone 出現在華語(含方言)中最多 Most Chinese languages has contour tone systems, where the distinguishing feature of the tones are their shifts in pitch (that is, the pitch is a contour), such as rising, falling, dipping, or level. 註: 國語(普通話)中有四聲再加輕聲共5個tone 下列網頁提供說明http://www.shlrc.mq.edu.au/masters/students/raltwarg/di_tone.htm
2. Register tone出現在Bantu語系中最多 以pitch分別字義 Most Bantu languages, on the other hand, have register tone systems, where the distinguishing feature is the relative difference between the pitches, such as high, mid, or low, rather than their shapes. In many register tone systems there is a default tone, usually low in a two-tone system or mid in a three-tone system, that is more common and less salient than other tones. 註: pitch簡單說就是音樂課裡的音準 do re mi fa so la ti 註:
Contour Language是非洲語系 在維基百科對此種語言另有說明
3. 包含以上cantour和register tone二者特性之語言 There are also languages that combine register and contour tones, such as many Kru languages, where nouns are distinguished by contour tones and verbs by register. Others, such as Yoruba, have phonetic contours, but these can easily be analysed as sequences of register tones, with for example sequences of high–low /áà/ becoming falling [âː], and sequences of low–high /àá/ becoming rising [ǎː].
2008-06-10 10:54:30 補充：
· 11 年前