1. authentic language: real or natural language, as used by native speakers of a language in real-life contexts; not artificial or contrived for purposes of learning ...
2.Target language:Target Language refers to any language learners are trying to learn in addition their native language. The term is rather dated, and nowadays the same concept is often expressed with the term second language or L2
3.communicative competence: the ability to recognize and to produce authentic and appropriate language correctly and fluently in any situation; use of language in realistic, everyday settings; involves grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, discourse competence, and strategic competence
4.functional syllbus: a way of organizing a language learning curriculum than a method or an approach to teaching. In a notional-functional syllabus, instruction is organized not in terms of grammatical structure as had often been done with the Audio-Lingual Method (ALM), but in terms of “notions” and “functions.” In this model, a “notion” is a particular context in which people communicate, and a “function” is a specific purpose for a speaker in a given context
5. role play: A task in a test of speaking performance in which the test taker adopts a specified role in an interaction with one or more additional speakers (eg another test candidate, teacher or trained interlocutor).
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6. Participatory approach: to development is that the community and stakeholders are collaborators in a project at every stage of project development. Thus, participative methods are meant to generate a sense of ownership of decisions and actions.
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7.The whole lagguage approach: A holistic philosophy of reading instruction which gained momentum during the 1970s, '80s, and early '90s. Emphasizes the use of authentic text, reading for meaning, the integration of all language skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening), and context
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8. bottom-up approach: to give rise to grander systems, thus making the original systems sub-systems of the emergent system. In a bottom-up approach the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail.
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9.top-down approach: to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is first formulated, specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems.
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10.task-based instruction: an approach seeking to provide learners with a natural context for language use. As learners work to complete a task, they have abundant opportunity to interact.
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information-gap activities : A transfer of given information from one person to another
- or from one form to another, or from one place to another - generally call for the decoding or encoding of information from or into language
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12.reasoning-gap activities : deriving some new information from given information through processes of inference, deduction, practical reasoning, or a perception of relationship or patterns.
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13.feedback: Information returned to students on their progress in their course/subject. The information can be in the form of marks or grades, and/or qualitatively in the form of comments, model answers, suggestions for reading, etc.
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14.meta-cognitive strategies : one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them, e.g., the learning-relevant properties of information or data
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cognitive strategies : provide a structure for learning that actively promotes the comprehension and retention of knowledge through the use of engaging strategies that acknowledge the brain's limitations of capacity and processing
social strategies : learn with others
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15. cooperactive learning : An instructional method that allows students to work in small groups within the classroom, often with a division of assignment of several specific tasks or roles. This group strategy allows students to practice working in a group and taking leadership roles. ...
2008-06-22 00:02:37 補充：
due to maximum words limit , I have to cut out some content, so if you need more detail, just let me know
2008-06-22 23:55:39 補充：
Top down approach : using one’s world knowledge or familiarity with the text content and text structure to orchestrate the selection of lower-level processing strategies, such as decoding of words and interpretation of phrases, to ensureappropriate comprehension
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Bottom up approach : refers toreaders’ attention to the linguistic information encoded in the print to process the text by first decoding each individual word, then grouping individual words into sentences, and finally extending sentences into discourses
2008-06-22 23:57:09 補充：
my bad , looking up the wrong definitions, thanks for reminding