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里長 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

a mosquito net hanging的文法解析

There is a mosquito net hanging over his bed.

上句的蚊帳不會自己掛上去,而是被掛上去的。為什麼hang不用過去分詞hanged或hung,而是用現在分詞hanging呢?

若能多舉個例子說明,那就太好了。

已更新項目:

Hi Weng.Steve及RSX,

你們二位講的,我實在是看不懂。

能不能請二位一步一步講清楚,將你們所用的代名詞交代清楚(即代名詞是指那個東西)。不要一次跳太多。

2 個已更新項目:

Hi Elisa,

實在很感謝你提供這麼清楚的解釋,讓我認識了ergative verb這一種動詞。

在詳讀了你附的索引之後,已知你已提供list of ergative verb,這實在是很棒。但是因為這些字共有286個,一時之間實在無法一一記清楚。所以,請問有什麼方法或原則可以記住這些字?或是有什麼原則可以推導出某些特定的(specific)動詞具有ergative verb的middle voice的用法?

3 個解答

評分
  • Elisa
    Lv 7
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    不要假設只有生物才有主動語態,非生物全是被動語態。 在英語語言學,有一種動詞類別叫Ergative動詞,屬於中間語態, 但語態就像主動語態.

    Please see details below.

    In English linguistics, there is a category of verbs known as Ergative Verbs, which acts like an active voice. They are verbs which allow the three-voice option of active, middle or passive. Examples include close, evaporate, bend, increase, hang, sink, shrink, drown, break, change, drop, etc.

    An ergative verb in English is where the verb doesn't have an agent for a subject but the verb in a way expresses the action itself without having a separate subject

    The middle voice can be seen as in the middle of active voice and passive voice. When it is used, the object of a transitive clause (e.g. water in sentences 1 and a pen in sentence 4) becomes the subject of an intransitive clause (see sentences 3 and 6). There may be no doers at all, and even if there are doers, the actions are often not done deliberately or intentionally by the doers.

    1. The sun evaporates water. (Active Voice)

    2. Water is evaporated (by the sun). (Passive Voice)

    3. Water evaporates. (Middle Voice acting like active voice)

    4. Someone dropped a pen. (Active)

    5. A pen was dropped (by someone). (Passive)

    6. A pen dropped. (Middle)

    7. She baked the cake for an hour (Active)

    8. The cake was baked for an hour (Passive).

    9. The cake baked for an hour (Middle).

    10. The host opened the fair on March 17(A)

    11. The fair was opened on March 17 (P)

    12. The fair opened on March 17 (M)

    16. This fact proves his guilt. (M)

    17. A mosquito net hangs over his bed. (= There is a mosquito net hanging over his bed) (M)

    18. The ice melted into water. (M)

    See below for more details:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergative_verb

    http://www.usingenglish.com/glossary/ergative-verb...

    http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Chan-ErgativeVerbs.ht...

    http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:English_erg... (list of ergative verbs).

    2008-07-09 03:52:57 補充:

    If you still have question, please let me know.

    2008-07-09 22:31:00 補充:

    These are some the characteristics of ergative verbs.

    Verbs suggesting a change of state — break, burst, melt, tear, moisten

    Verbs of cooking — bake, boil, cook, fry

    Verbs of movement — move, shake, sweep, turn, open, eject, march

    Verbs involving vehicles — drive, fly, reverse, sail.

    2008-07-09 22:32:06 補充:

    Sorry, typo.

    These are some "of" the characteristics of ergative verbs.

    2008-07-09 22:42:34 補充:

    I will try to see if I can find more patterns later.

    參考資料: Myself. Went abroad at age 11. With 32 years experience speaking and writing English. Tutored English as an Undergrad. A project manager in the US since 1992., Myself. Went abroad at age 11. With 32 years experience speaking and writing English. Tutored English as an Undergrad. A project manager in the US since 1992., Myself. Went abroad at age 11. With 32 years experience speaking and writing English. Tutored English as an Undergrad. A project manager in the US since 1992.
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  • 1 0 年前

    B動辭 (is/am/are) 後面+ing

    因為前面用的是 IS 所以後面的 HANG 要加 [ing]

    mom just hanged the mosquito net over your bed this morning, tom

    同一個情形 加了故事來形容 告訴TOM蚊帳是媽媽掛上去的

    這個情況就形容了蚊帳是掛上去的所以加 [ed]

    the mosquito net is hung on top of me (tom saying)

    這個情況是TOM在形容蚊帳已經掛在上面了 IS是指現在 但是蚊帳已經掛上去了所以用hung

    不好意思 解釋的很遭 希望幫的到你...

    參考資料: myself
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  • 1 0 年前

    完整的句子應該是

    如果用蚊帳當主詞

    a mosquito net is hanging over his bed.

    轉變成

    a mosquito net (which is) hanging over his bed is there.

    be動詞左右兩側之名詞或名詞子句能左右互換, 所以

    才會有下面這句的出現

    There is a mosquito net hanging over his bed.

    2008-07-08 09:59:30 補充:

    所以用ing的意思是在表示說那個蚊帳正掛在他的床上,

    強調的事現在的意思. 而不是強調被動

    不過如果你要用過去分詞也是可以但是後面接的可能就不是over his bed...

    for example,

    the mosquito net hung over his bed just got torn down by me.

    這裡的hung就是在強調掛在他床上的蚊帳,

    剛剛被我扯了下來

    got torn過去加被動

    tear-tore- torn-tearing

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