Size at birth: emerging evidence suggests that body size at birth is also positively correlated with breast cancer risk in adulthood. There is some evidence that birth weight and length is associated with breast cancer, but whether this association differs between premenopausal and postmenopausal ages is still unclear. The evidence is also conflicting as to whether this effect is independent of postnatal growth.
Oral contraceptive use
Oral contraceptives may produce a slight increase in breast cancer risk among long-term users, but this appears to be a short-term effect. In a meta-analysis of 54 published studies, current users of the combined contraceptive pill (containing an oestrogen and a progestogen) had a relative risk of 1.24. No difference in risk was observed 10 or more years after stopping use of the combined contraceptive pill (relative risk of 1.01).More recent results are broadly compatible with these findings, but inconsistencies remain.
Radiation and environmental chemicals
Exposure to industrial environmental factors such as moderate-to-high-dose ionizing radiation, especially at a young age, is an acknowledged, if somewhat rare, risk factor for breast cancer. However, other environmental factors, such as exposure to electromagnetic radiation, occupational exposures and organochlorine pesticides, have not been conclusively linked to an increased risk. Recently, there have been claims, which are not supported by experimental or epidemiological evidence, that antiperspirant use is related to breast cancer (Figure 5). Such inaccurate messages can have a negative impact, and their effects on public perceptions are discussed below.
- 1 0 年前最佳解答
大小出生時: 湧現的證據建議, 身體尺寸出生時正面地也被關聯以乳腺癌風險在成年。有一些證據, 誕生重量和長度同乳腺癌聯繫在一起, 但是否這個協會不同在premenopausal 和postmenopausal 年齡之間是不明的。證據並且矛盾至於是否這個作用是獨立出生後成長。
口服避孕藥用途口服避孕藥也許導致在乳腺癌風險的輕微的增量在長期用戶之中, 但這看來是一個短期作用。在對54 項出版研究的階分析, 聯合的避孕藥片的當前的用戶(包含雌激素和progestogen) 有一種相對風險1.24 。在風險上的區別未被觀察10 或更多年在停止對聯合的避孕藥片的用途以後(1.01).More 最近結果相對風險寬廣地是與這些研究結果兼容, 但不一致依然是。
2008-08-07 19:34:11 補充：
輻射和對工業環境因素的環境化學製品暴露譬如適度對高藥量致電離輻射, 特別是在年輕年齡, 是被承認的, 如果有些罕見的, 風險因素為乳腺癌。但是, 其它環境因素, 譬如對電磁輻射的暴露, 職業性曝光和有機氯殺蟲劑, 與一種增加的風險決定性地未連接。最近, 有是要求, 由實驗性或流行病學的證據不支持, 止汗藥用途與乳腺癌有關。這樣不精確的消息可能有負面地影響, 並且他們的對公開悟性的作用下面被談論。